biology chapter 40

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kenderrrr
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biology chapter 40
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2011-03-13 21:56:32
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freshman bio
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  1. microorganisms cause infectious diseases
    germ theory of disease
  2. cells that "remember" a disease
    memory b cells
  3. discovered by allen steere, rash, signs of arthritis, carried on deer tick
    lyme disease
  4. compounds that only kill bacteria without hurting cells of the host
    antibiotics
  5. two types of antibiotics
    natural and synthetic
  6. interfere with cellular processes of pathogens
    antibiotics
  7. substance that triggers an immune response
    antigen
  8. bacteria, virus, protist, allergy
    antigen
  9. produced from plasma cells to fight intruder cells
    antibodies
  10. result of tissue damage
    inflammatory response
  11. what is your bodies second line of defense?
    inflammatory response
  12. fight infection through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells
    immune system
  13. two types of immune defenses?
    specific, non-specific
  14. what kind of immune defense is like a sniper?
    specific
  15. what kind of immune defense is like a nuclear bomb?
    non-specific
  16. type of non-specific defense that will fight anything foreign
    non-discriminating
  17. what is the most important nonspecific defense?
    skin
  18. series of rules to identify organisms that cause a specific disease
    koch's postulates
  19. koch's first postulate
    a pathogen should always by found in the body of a sick organism and not in a healthy one
  20. koch's second postulate
    pathogen must be isolated and grown in a pure culture
  21. koch's third postulate
    pathogens should create the same response if placed in a healthy organism
  22. koch's fourth postulate
    injected pathogen should be isolated from the second host and should be identical to original pathogen
  23. what's an example of deliberate active immunity?
    vaccine
  24. what happens after phagocytosis of pathogen?
    fever
  25. disease-causing agents
    pathogens
  26. diseases caused by pathogens
    infectious diseases
  27. examples of pathogens
    germs, bacteria, virus, etc.
  28. animal spreading a pathogen person to person
    vector
  29. attacks cancer (genetic diseases) cells and cells infected with viruses
    cell-mediated immunity
  30. cells destroy the pathogen (apoptosis)
    killer t
  31. cells produce memory t cells
    helper t
  32. remember the intruder like memory b cells
    memory t cells
  33. shut down the killer t's after they are finished
    supressor t cells
  34. what are t lymphocytes?
    killer t cells, helper t cells, suppressor t cells, and memory t cells
  35. what does humoral immunity protect?
    body fluids
  36. what do b cells make?
    plasma cells and memory b cells
  37. what does humoral immunity do?
    produce plasma cells for antibodies and memory b cells to remember the disease
  38. what is an example of natural active immunity?
    exposure thgough infection
  39. what is an example of natural passive immunity?
    mother to infant through placenta or through breast milk
  40. what is an example of deliberate passive immunity?
    vaccines with antibodies from non-human source-short lived- eventually destroyed
  41. how are infectious diseases spread?
    physical contact, contaminated food or water, infected animals
  42. what types of cells are associated with humoral immunity?
    b cells, memory b cells, plasma cells
  43. what types of cells are associated with cell mediated immunity?
    all the types of t cells
  44. which types of pathogens are treatable with antibiotics?
    bacteria
  45. inhibit viral protein synthesis and viral replication to slow down infection and buy time for specific defense
    interferons
  46. which types of pathogens are treatable with interferons?
    viruses
  47. the body's main defense against pathogens
    immune system
  48. preventing pathogens from entering the body
    non-specific defense
  49. destroying harmful pathogens that enter the body
    specific defense
  50. breaks down cell walls (bursts cells)
    lysosyme
  51. what is the job of the body's first line of defense?
    keep pathogens out of body
  52. what are the components of the body's first line of defense?
    skin, mucus, sweat, and tears
  53. what is the enzyme that body secretions contain that kill bacteria?
    lysozyme
  54. what are white blood cells called that engulf and destroy bacteria?
    phagocytes
  55. protein that helps destroy pathogens
    antibody
  56. what is due to antigens and lasts for life?
    active immunity
  57. what is due to antibiotics and lasts for a short time?
    passive immunity
  58. injection of a weakened or mild form of a pathogen to produce immunity
    vaccination
  59. elevated body temperature that occurs in response to infection
    fever
  60. what do modern vaccines stimulate the body to produce?
    millions of plasma cells ready to produce specific types of antibodies
  61. why is a fever beneficial to a person with an infection?
    many pathogens can survive only within a narrow temperature range
  62. an example of an insect vector
    mosquito, deer tick
  63. types of diseases caused by viruses?
    common cold, flu, smallpox, warts
  64. tiny particles that invade, take over, and replicate in living cells (RNA/DNA)
    viruses
  65. what is the strategy of bacteria?
    breakdown tissues for food, release harmful toxins
  66. when does active immunity appear?
    after exposure to an antigen
  67. the type of immunity produced by the body's reaction to a vaccine
    active immunity
  68. how are antiviral drugs used to fight viral infections?
    generally inhibit the ability of viruses to invade cells and to multiply once inside of cells
  69. short-term immunity caused when antibodies produced by other animals for a pathogen are injected into the body
    passive immunity
  70. relationship between antigens and antibodies?
    ...?

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