biology chapter 40
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biology chapter 40
microorganisms cause infectious diseases
germ theory of disease
cells that "remember" a disease
memory b cells
discovered by allen steere, rash, signs of arthritis, carried on deer tick
compounds that only kill bacteria without hurting cells of the host
two types of antibiotics
natural and synthetic
interfere with cellular processes of pathogens
substance that triggers an immune response
bacteria, virus, protist, allergy
produced from plasma cells to fight intruder cells
result of tissue damage
what is your bodies second line of defense?
fight infection through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells
two types of immune defenses?
what kind of immune defense is like a sniper?
what kind of immune defense is like a nuclear bomb?
type of non-specific defense that will fight anything foreign
what is the most important nonspecific defense?
series of rules to identify organisms that cause a specific disease
koch's first postulate
a pathogen should always by found in the body of a sick organism and not in a healthy one
koch's second postulate
pathogen must be isolated and grown in a pure culture
koch's third postulate
pathogens should create the same response if placed in a healthy organism
koch's fourth postulate
injected pathogen should be isolated from the second host and should be identical to original pathogen
what's an example of deliberate active immunity?
what happens after phagocytosis of pathogen?
diseases caused by pathogens
examples of pathogens
germs, bacteria, virus, etc.
animal spreading a pathogen person to person
attacks cancer (genetic diseases) cells and cells infected with viruses
cells destroy the pathogen (apoptosis)
cells produce memory t cells
remember the intruder like memory b cells
memory t cells
shut down the killer t's after they are finished
supressor t cells
what are t lymphocytes?
killer t cells, helper t cells, suppressor t cells, and memory t cells
what does humoral immunity protect?
what do b cells make?
plasma cells and memory b cells
what does humoral immunity do?
produce plasma cells for antibodies and memory b cells to remember the disease
what is an example of natural active immunity?
exposure thgough infection
what is an example of natural passive immunity?
mother to infant through placenta or through breast milk
what is an example of deliberate passive immunity?
vaccines with antibodies from non-human source-short lived- eventually destroyed
how are infectious diseases spread?
physical contact, contaminated food or water, infected animals
what types of cells are associated with humoral immunity?
b cells, memory b cells, plasma cells
what types of cells are associated with cell mediated immunity?
all the types of t cells
which types of pathogens are treatable with antibiotics?
inhibit viral protein synthesis and viral replication to slow down infection and buy time for specific defense
which types of pathogens are treatable with interferons?
the body's main defense against pathogens
preventing pathogens from entering the body
destroying harmful pathogens that enter the body
breaks down cell walls (bursts cells)
what is the job of the body's first line of defense?
keep pathogens out of body
what are the components of the body's first line of defense?
skin, mucus, sweat, and tears
what is the enzyme that body secretions contain that kill bacteria?
what are white blood cells called that engulf and destroy bacteria?
protein that helps destroy pathogens
what is due to antigens and lasts for life?
what is due to antibiotics and lasts for a short time?
injection of a weakened or mild form of a pathogen to produce immunity
elevated body temperature that occurs in response to infection
what do modern vaccines stimulate the body to produce?
millions of plasma cells ready to produce specific types of antibodies
why is a fever beneficial to a person with an infection?
many pathogens can survive only within a narrow temperature range
an example of an insect vector
mosquito, deer tick
types of diseases caused by viruses?
common cold, flu, smallpox, warts
tiny particles that invade, take over, and replicate in living cells (RNA/DNA)
what is the strategy of bacteria?
breakdown tissues for food, release harmful toxins
when does active immunity appear?
after exposure to an antigen
the type of immunity produced by the body's reaction to a vaccine
how are antiviral drugs used to fight viral infections?
generally inhibit the ability of viruses to invade cells and to multiply once inside of cells
short-term immunity caused when antibodies produced by other animals for a pathogen are injected into the body
relationship between antigens and antibodies?