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- Structuralism... which was too narrow and restrictive...functionalism sought to include useful, practical functions of the mind and consciousness
- Evolutionary theory...darwin
- Animal Psychology...Romanes/Morgan
- Galton(all British)
- Zeitgeist- Science...mind as it functions...practicality
- shift from biblical authority
- Industrial Revolution
What did functionalism lead to...
- Increased research on animal behavior, thus behaviorism
- Study of children and mental retardation--- educational applications.
- -Long tradition of Experimental biology and Animal Psych.
- -Scientific Materialism... Mind & Behavior can be explained using concepts from math and physics.
- -avoid supernatural forces
- -Loeb and McDougall
- - Animal behaviorism....
- -Movement toward Objective study
- Favored objectivity, adaptability, application
- consciousness gone from psychology
Behaviorism led to...
- Fundamental tenet- strict objectivity, no consciousness
- -Objective observation had surpassed introspection
- -data in measurable terms
- -finally a true science
- - past 5 decades it has died out
- -Cognitive focus has returned
- Mach- Analysis of sensations...space-form/time-form
- -Ehrenfels...triangle will always be a triangle
- -james.. we see unified objects, not groups of sensations
- -Phenomenologists.. Immediate experience, meaning in experience
- Germany was ready for something different in Psych.
- Physics-less atomic
Gestalt led to...
- Looked at an old problem in a new way
- -refreshed and stimulated psychology
- -influenced study of perception and learning theories
- -Major tenets have not been absorbed into mainstream - Interest in consciousness
- No sharp distinction between man and animal
- Mind in animals would be support for evolution
- -Movement in physics
- -Define concepts by operations used to observe them
- -operational definitions
- -Science is ultimately physical; based on observable facts
- -All Science issues can be examined via physics and operationism/must be objectively observable
- -Purely Objective, no room for subjective
- -predict and control behavior
- -eradicate distinction between animals and humans
- Instincts- emotions, thinking, learning and conditioning, and personality