Certified Sommelier - France.txt
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State the quality levels of French wine (from most regulated to least regulated)
- Appelation d'Origine Controlee (AOC) - Region, Sub-Region, Village, Vineyard Classification
- Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure (VDQS)
- Vin de Pays
- Vin de Table
Merchant who buys grapes or juice or wine from others and sells wine under their own name
State the AOCs of Alsace
- Alsace: regional AOC, 11 grapes, if varietal label must be 100%
- Cremant d'Alsace: regional AOC, Pinot Blanc dominates but not required, methode traditionnelle
- Alsace Grand Cru: vineyard classification AOC, 51 vineyards, blends OK, only noble grapes
State 3 things that an AOC might regulate
- Always: Origin of grapes (where grown), Grape varieties
- Possibly: Yields of vineyards (tons/acre), yields from pressing (liters per ton), Harvest date, Alcohol levels (min/max), Sugar levels (min/max), Viticultural techniques (trellising), Vinicultural techniques, Classifications (e.g., premier cru)
State the noble grapes of Alsace ("AL-ZASS")
- Pinto Gris (aka Tokay d'Alsace)
- Sylvaner from Zotzenberg vineyard
Describe the typical style of Alsace wines
- mostly white
- more full and dry than German counterparts
- little (neutral) to no oak
- med to high acidity
- med to high alcohol
Define Vendage Tardive (VT)
- late harvest wine, not necessarily sweet, only noble grapes (G/PG higher min ripeness than R/M)
- Small vineyards, only made in exceptional years, may be Grand Cru
Define Selection de Grains Noble (SGN)
- dessert sweet due to botrytis, only noble grapes (G/PG higher min ripeness than R/M)
- Small vineyards, only made in exceptional years, may be Grand Cru
Name any sparkling wine AOC of the Loire
- Cremant de Loire (min 80% Chenin Blanc with Chardonnay, etc.)
- Saumur Mousseux (Chenin Blanc with up to 20% Chardonnay and Sauvingnon Blanc)
Name the synonym & sub-region for Muscadet
- Melon de Bourgogne (aka Gamay Blanc); Also allowed is Folle Blanc
- Muscadet AOC
- Muscadet des Coteaux de la Loire [Sur Lie] AOC
- Muscadet Cotes de Grandlieu [Sur Lie] AOC
- Muscadet de Sevre-et-Maine [Sur Lie] AOC
- *Muscadet Sur Lie AOC (term may be appended only to the 3 sub-appellations above)
Name the grapes of Sancerre & 1 similar AOC & their sub-region
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Pinot Noir
- Pouilly-Fume is across the river from Sancerre but has no red or rose wine
- Central Vineyards
Name the grape of Vouvray & its sub-region
- Chenin Blanc (may contain Arbois); Mondavi's Fume Blanc mimics this style
Name the AOC of Coulee de Serrant & Roche Aux Moines & its sub-region
- Savennieres (Chateau de la) Roche-aux-Moines AOC
- Savennieres (Clos de la) Coulee-de-Serrant AOC
Describe Kimmeridgian & Silex soils
- Kimmeridgian is blue-grey limestone
- Silex is a flint and sand based soil type formed from a mixture of clay, limestone and silca
- Both soil types are found in Sancerre
Name two AOCs of Loire for Cabernet Franc & their sub-region
- Chinon (Touraine)
- Bourgueil and St. Nicolas-de-Bourgueil (Touraine)
- Saumur-Champigny (Anjou-Saumur)
Name 2 AOCs for botrytis wines & their sub-region
- Chaume 1er Cru des Coteaux du Layon
- Coteaux du Layon Villages (Beaulieu-sur-Layon, Faye-d'Anjou, Rablay-sur-Layon, Rochefort-sur-Loire, Saint-Aubin-de-Luigne and Saint-Lambert-du-Lattay; usually, the "de" or "sur" part is dropped)
Name the sub-regions of Burgundy
- Cote de Nuits
- Cote de Beaune
- Cote Challonaise
Name the sparkling wine of Burgundy
- Cremant de Bourgogne
- Sparkling whites and rose from Pinot Noir, Pino Gris, Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay, Sacy, Aligote, Melon, and max of 20% Gamay
Name the still wine regional AOC of Burgundy
Name the best soil type of Chablis
Name the major white grape of Burgundy
Name the AOC for Sauvignon Blanc in Burgundy
Sauvignon de St. Bris (Chablis)
Name the portion of the Cote D'Or best known for whites
Cote de Beaune
Name 1 white Grand Cru of the Cote D'Or & 1 of Chablis
- White Cote de Nuits Grand Cru: Musigny
- White Cote de Beaune Grand Crus: Batard-Montrachet, Bienvenues-Batard-Montrachet, Charlemagne, Chevalier-Montrachet, Corton-Charlemagne, Criots-Batard-Montrachet, Montrachet
- 7 Chablis Grand Crus: Bougros, Les Preuses, Vaudesir, Grenouilles, Valmur, Les Clos, Blanchot
Name 3 top Burgundy vintages since 1990
1990, 1996, 2005
Name the portion of the Cote D'Or best known for reds
Cote de Nuits
Name a red Grand Cru of Cote D'Or
- Gevery Chambertin (8): Le Chambertin, Chambertin-Clos de Beze, Chapelle-Chambertin, Charmes-Chambertin, Griottes-Chambertin, Latricieres-Chambertin, Mazis-Chambertin, Ruchottes-Chambertin
- Morey-St.-Denis (5): Clos St.-Denis, Clos des Lambrays, Clos de la Roche, Clos de Tart, Bonnes Mares
- Chambolle-Musigny: Le Musigny (red and white), Bonnes Mares
- Vougeot: Clos de Vougeot
- Flagey Echezeaux: Echezeaux, Grands Echezeaux
- Vosne-Romanee (6): Romanee-Conti, Richebourg, La Romanee, Romanee-St.-Vivant, La Grande Rue, La Tache
Red Cote de Beaune Grand Cru: Corton
State what is different about Corton & Musigny compared to the other Grand Cru of their respective districts
They are the only Grand Cru that permit both red and white wines
State what the 2nd word is in most Cote D'Or village names
Name 3 villages in each half of the Cote D'Or
- Cote de Nuits: Dijon, Chenove, Marsannay-la-cote, Fixin, Brochon, Gevery-Chambertin, Morey St.-Denis, Chambolle-Musigny, Vougeot, Flagey-Echezeaux, Vosne-Romanee, Nuits St.Georges, Prissey, Comblanchien, Corgoloin
- Cote de Beaune: Pernard-Vergelesses, Aloxe-Corton, Ladoix-Serrigny, Savigny-les-Beaune, Chorey-les-Beaune, Beaune, Pommard, Volnay, St.Romain, Monthelie, Meursault, Auxey-Duresses, Puligny-Montrachet, Chassagne-Montrachet, Chagny, Santenay, Remigny, Rully
Define Marl soil
A cold calcareous clay that delays ripening and adds acidity to wine
State the grapes of Bourgogne Passetoutgrains
Gamay and Pinot Noir
Name the most famous AOC of the Chalonnaise
Name a good producer in the Chalonnaise
Name the most famous AOC of the Maconnais
Name the grape of Beaujolais
State the production & style difference for Beaujolais Nouveau
Carbonic Maceration ferments most of the juice while it is still inside the grape, although grapes at the bottom of the vessel are crushed by gravity and undergo conventional fermentation. The resulting wine is fruity with very low tannins.
Name 10 Cru in Beaujolais
St.Amour, Julienas, Moulin-A-Vent, Chenas, Fleurie, Chiroubles, Morgan, Regnie, Brouilly, Cote de Brouilly
State the best soil type of Beaujolais
- Granite (in the north where the Crus are)
- Limestone is in the south where Beaujolais-Village and Beaujolais wines are
State the difference between Rully & Reuilly
- Rully is a town in the Cote Chalonnaise that uses Chardonnay
- Reuilly is a town in the Loire that uses Sauvignon Blanc
State the difference between St. Aubin & St. Veran
- St.Aubin a a town in the Cote d'Beaune that uses Chardonnay
- St.Veran is a town in the Maconnais that uses Chardonnay
Name the grape of Condrieu
Name the other 2 white grapes of the Northern Rhone
State the difference between Northern & Southern Rhone reds
Syrah dominates in the north, Grenache-Syrah-Mouvdre blends dominate in the south
State the difference between Crozes-Hermitage & Hermitage
Crozes-Hermitage is daily wine; Hermitage is for special occasions
Name two AOC for red wines from the Southern Rhone & 1 other than those above for the Northern Rhone
- South: Chateauneuf-du-Pape, Gigondas, Lirac, Vacqueyras, Beaumes-de-Venise, Vinsobres
- North: Cote Rotie, St.Joseph, Cornas
State the regional AOC for the Rhone
- Region: Cotes du Rhone
- Subregion: all in southern Rhone
- Village: about 15
- No Premier Cru or Grand Cru
Name a fortified wine from the Rhone
- Muscat de Beaunes-de-Venise (white and rose)
- Rasteau (red, rose, white, tawny, rancio)
Name an AOC for rose from Rhone or Provence
- Tavel (Rhone; the most famous French dry rose)
- Bandol (Provence)
State the rough geographic location of Languedoc & Roussillon
Between Mediterranean and Pyrenees
Describe the classifications of Languedoc (dry reds) and Roussillon (VDN = fortified)
- Regional AOC: yes
- Subregion AOC: no
- Village AOC: yes
- Grand Cru: Banyuls (defined by altitude and alcohol content)
- Vin de Pays: Pay D'Oc (contains 3 sub-Vin De Pays)
Name Languedoc AOCs
- Corbieres (carbonic maceration, Gobelet training)
- Minervois (similar to Corbieres)
- Costieres de Nimes (GSM)
- Languedoc (was Coteaux du Languedoc)
- Fitou (reds from Carignon, Grenache, Lladoner Pelut, ...)
- St.Chinian (R/W/R from Grenache, Lladoner Pelut, Mourvedre, Syrah, ...)
Name Roussillon AOCs
- Banyuls, Banyuls Grand Cru (VDN with min 50% Grenache/75% for Grand Cru)
- Maury (VDN with min 75% Grenache)
- Muscat de Rivesaltes (VDN from Muscat)
- Rivesaltes (VDN from Muscat, Grenache, Macabeo, Tourbat, ...)
- Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Roussillon Villages (W from Macabeo, Tourbat; R/R from Syrah, Mourvedre, ...)
Name 3 terms for fortified wines indicating exposure to oxygen
- Rimage: non-oxidative
- Ambre: semi-oxidative (oxidative tawny)
- Rancio: oxidative
- Tuile: oxidative red
- Grenat: reductive red
- Hors d'age: min 5 years aging
Name a wine that is great with Chocolate
What is the southernmost AOC in France
- Continental: Banyuls
- Anywhere: Corsica
What grapes are used in Corbieres AOC?
- Reds/Rose: Carignan, Greache, Lladoner Pelut, Syrah, ...
- Whites: Bourboulenc, Grenache, Macabeo, ...
What does Method Ancestrale mean?
- Bottled before first fermentation finishes
- Results in a semi-bubbly, semi-sweet wine
Name the first sparkling wine in France
Limoux en Languedoc (100 years before Champagne)
Name the famous sparkling wine of Languedoc
- Cremant de Limoux, Blanquette de Limoux
- Grapes: Mauzac, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc
Name a Vin Doux Naturel
Maury, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Rivesaltes
State what major wine regions surround Southwest (Sudouest)
Bourdeaux, Atlantic, Pyrenees, Languedoc-Rousanne
Name Sudouest AOCs
- Jurancon: best AOC; Sec, Moelleux; whites from Petit Manseng, Gros Manseng, Courbu, Camaralet, Lauzet
- Monbazillac: great value sweet wine from Semillon, SB, Muscadelle
- Gaillac: Sec, Doux, Mousseux; Whites from Len de'El, SB, ...; Reds from Duras, Fer, Syrah, ...
- Bergerac: borders Bordeaux
- Pecharmant: best part of Bergerac
- Buzet: supervalue Bordeaux satellite
- Cahors: most famous AOC, black wine
- Cotes du-Frontonnais: R/R from Negrette, Malbec, ...
- Irouleguy: Tannat plus at least 50% CS and CF
- Madiran: 40-60% Tannat, CF, CS, Fer
- Tursan: VDQS
Name the grape of Cahors
Name an AOC for the Tannat grape
What is the most widely planted grape in Uruguay?
State the rough geographic location of Jura & ("sa-vwa")
Geneva, between Burgundy and Jura and Mountains
Define Vin Jaune
- Yellow wine; sherry-like white wine made from the Savagnin grape
- Oxidized at least 6 years in the barrel, untopped
- Oxidation limited by Flor, a strain of yeast that forms on top of the untopped wine
- Chateau Chalon AOC (this is the name of a VILLAGE in the Jura with multiple producers)
Define Vins de Paille
Straw wine, made only in the ripest vintages, is complex sweet wine made by leaving late-picked grapes to dry while hanging over straw mats for up to 3 months. The Cotes du Jura uses a blend of Chardonnay, Savagnin and the red grape Poulsard. Vins de paille are also made from Marsanne in Hermitage, and from Riesling in Alsace. It is an excellent accompaniment to foie gras.
Name Savoie AOCs and their grapes
- Bugey-Cerdon AOC (demi-sec rose from Gamay and Poulsard, methode ancestrale; note: VDQS was different)
- Crepy (Chasselas)
- Seyssel (Roussette)
What is a clavelin?
Squat bottle (originally 620 ml) holding Vin Jaune (Chateau Chalon AOC in Jura)
Name Top Producers of Languedoc and Roussillon
- Domaine du Mas Blanc (Banyuls)
- Domain de la Tour Vielle (Banyuls)
- Mas de Daumas Gassac (VDP de l'Herault)
- Chateau de Jau (Roussillon)
Name the dominant grape(s) for Left Bank reds
Name the dominant grape(s) for Right Bank reds
Merlot and/or Cabernet Franc
Name the two most important AOCs of the Right Bank
- Pomerol and St.Emilion
- Other AOCs include Fronsac, Canon-Fronsac, and satellite AOCs of Pomerol and St.Emilion
Name the top category within the Cru Bourgeois
Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnels
Name the 1st & 2nd Growths of the Medoc & their AOC
- 1st Pauillac: Lafite-Rothschild, Latour, Mouton-Rothschild
- 1st Margaux: Margaux
- 1st Pessac: Haut-Brion
- 2nd St.Estephe: Cos-d'Estournel, Montrose
- 2nd Pauillac: Pichon-Longueville Baron, Pichon-Lalande (aka Pichon-Longueville Comtesse-de-Lalande)
- 2nd St.Julian: Ducru-Beaucaillou, Gruaud-Larose, Leoville-Barton, Leoville-Las-Cases, Leoville-Poyferre
- 2nd Margaux: Brane-Cantenac, Durfort-Viviens, Lascombes, Rausan-Segla, Rauzan-Gassies
Name 4 communes of the Medoc
- Listrac (not as important)
- Moulis en Medoc (not as important)
Describe the classification of Pomerol & name 2 chateau
- Never had a classification
- Important Chatequx include Petrus, Le Pin, La Fleur Petrus, La Conseillante, Vieux-Chateau-Certan, Trotanoy
Name the 1er Grand Cru's of St. Emilion
- 2 Class A: Chateau Ausone, Chateau Cheval Blanc
- 13 Class B: Chateau
- Beau-Sejour Becot
- Belair Soil
- la Gaffeliere
- Pavie Macquin
- Troplong Mondot
Name three sub-regions of Bordeaux
Medoc, Graves, Entre-Deux-Mers
Name the important white grapes of Bordeaux
Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle
Name the best sub-region of Graves
Name two AOCs for sweet wine in Bordeaux
Cerons, Barsac, Sauterne, Cadillac, Loupiac, Ste-Croix du Mont
Name the lone Premier Grand Cru of Sauternes
What is the viticultural key to the best sweet wines of Bordeaux
Name the AOC used when dry wines are made in Sauternes
Name 2 Cru Classe estates of Graves for white wines
- White only: Couhins, Couhins-Lurton, Laville-Haut-Brion
- White and red: Haut-Brion, Carbonnieux, Domaine de Chevalier, d'Oliver, Malartic Lagraviere, La Tour-Martillac, Bouscaut
Name the grapes of Champagne
Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier ("MUN-YAY")
Name the 17 Grand Cru villages of Champagne
Le-Mesnil-Su-Oger ("MAY-NELL"), Cramant, Ay-Champagne, Ambonnay, Avize, Beaumonto-sur-Vesle, Bethod, Bouzy, Chouilly, Les Ricey, Louvois, Mailly-Champagne, Puisieux, Sillery, Tours-sur-Marne, Verzenay, Verzy
- Moving dead yeast to the neck of the bottle
- Manually (Pupitre is the rack used) or Automated (Gyropalette)
State the difference between Extra Brut & Extra Dry
- Extra Brut is bone dry
- Extra Dry is slightly sweet
Define Tete de Cuvee
The best wine (Head of Blend)
State the minimum sur lie aging for NV & Vintage Champagne
- 15 months for NV
- 3 years for vintage
State the term for topping up just prior to second fermentation
Liqueur de Tirage (same wine, sugar, yeast)
State the term for adding sugar just prior to corking
Liqueur d'expedition or Dosage ("dose of sugar")
Define Blanc de Noirs & Blanc de Blancs
- Blanc de Blancs means the wine contains only white grapes; in Champagne but not elsewhere, this means 100% Chardonnay
- Blanc de Noirs means the wine contains only black grapes
Name 5 top Alsace Producers
- Maison Trimbach
- Hugel et Fils
- Zind-Humbrecht (over the top powerful)
- Domain Ostertag (new oak)
- Marcell Deiss ("DICE")
Name 2 Alsace Grand Cru Vineyards that don't say Grand Cru on the label
- Cuvee Frederic Emile
- Clos Ste Hune
What does "lack structure" mean?
- For cold climates, lack of acid
- For warm climates, lack of tannin
Name 6 grapes used in Alsace that are not considered noble
- Pinot Blanc
- Auxerrois ("OX-ER-WA")
- Sylvaner (if NOT from Zotzenberg vineyard)
- Pinot Noir (only black grape in Alsace, dark rose color)
Describe the factors affecting the climate of Alsace
- Cold: Latitude and Altitude
- Warm: Vosges Mountains (stops rain) and Rhine River (not much of a factor since vines not on river banks), Rain Shadow and Thermal Layer
Are producers ranked in Alsace?
No, vineyards are ranked since a single vineyard can be owned by several producers
What quality levels exist in Alsace?
- AOC and Vin de Table
- No VDQS or Vin de Pays
What are the four sub-regions (districts) of the Loire Valley?
- AOC: Pays Nantais, Anjou-Saumur, Touraine, Central Vineyards
- Other Loire AOCs: Cotes Roannaise, Cotes du Forez
- Other Loire VDQS: Haut-Poitou, Fiefs Vendeens, Coteaux d'Ancenis, Chateaumeillant, Saint-Pourcain, Cotes d'Auvergne, Orleans
What is the longest river in France?
The Loire flows 620 miles from the Cevennes Mountains, through 12 departements, to the Atlantic Ocean.
What are the main grapes of Loire Pays Nantais?
What are the main grapes and wine types of Loire Anjou-Saumur?
- Chenin Blanc: Savennieres
- Chenin Blanc, semi-sweet: Coteaux de L'Aubance
- Chenin Blanc, botrytis: Coteaux du Lyon
- Cabernet Franc: Saumur-Champigny, Anjou-Villages
- Sparkling: Cremant de Loire, Samur Mousseux
- Rose: Rose d'Anjou, Cabernet d'Anjou
What are the main grapes of Loire Touraine?
- Chenin Blanc: Vouvray, Touraine-Amboise, Montlouis, Jasnieres
- Sauvignon Blanc: Touraine, Cheverny
- Romoratin: Cour-Cheverny
- Cabernet Franc: Chinon, Bourgueil
What are the main grapes of Loire Central Vineyards?
- Sauvignon Blanc: Sancerre, Pouilly-Fume, Quincy, Reuilly, Menetou-Salon
- Chasselas and SB: Pouilly-Sur-Loire ("Chas-a-las" grape of Egyptian origin)
- Pinot Noir: Sancerre, Reuilly, Menetou-Salon
- Gamay and PN: Cotes Du Gien Cosne-Sur-Loire, Coteaux Du Giennois
What does Cote d'Or mean?
Golden Slope, the departmental name for both the Cote de Nuites and the Cote de Beaune
What is the greatest natural hazard of Cote de Nuits?
What soils are found in Alsace?
- The steeper slopes are composed of schist, granite, and volcanic sediment.
- The lower slopes sit on a limestone base.
- The plain consists of richer alluvial clay and gravel soils.
What grapes in Alsace AOC may be labeled by variety?
The 4 noble grapes of Alsace (Riesling, Pinot Gris [aka Tokay d'Alsace], Muscat, and Gewerztraminer, and Sylvaner, Pinto Blanc (Klevner), Chasselas (Gutedel), and Pinot Noir. Even if bottled as a single varietal, Auxerrois is titled "Pinot Blanc" on the label.
What does Edelzwicker mean?
- Noble Mixture (usually indicates an inexpensive blended wine in Alsace).
- Gentil is a superior designation for blends, requiring a minimum of 50% noble grapes.
What is the most codified region in France?
- Burgundy, with over 600 appellations.
- Grand cru wines apply only to the Cote d'Or and Chablis.
What soils are found in Cote de Nuits?
A subsoil of sand-limestone covered by a chalky scree mixed with marl and clay on higher slops and alluvial deposits on lower slops. Higher slopes sometimes have red clay.
What soils are found in Cote de Beaune?
- Limestone subsoil with flinty clay and calcereous topsoils.
- Marl topsoil in Chassagne and Puligny.
What are the primary and secondary grape varieties of the Cote d'Or?
- Primary: Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
- Secondary: Pinot Gris (aka Pinot Beurot), Pinot Liebault, Pinot Blanc, Aligote, Melon de Bourgogne, Gamay
- Same answer for Cote de Nuits and Cote de Beaune.
What 5 communes are in the Cote de Nuit-Villages AOC?
Name the AOCs of the Cote Chalonnaise
- Bourgogne Cote Chalonnaise
- Bourgogne Cotes du Couchois
- Bouzeron (only AOC for Aligote)
- Rully, Rully 1er Cru (Chardonnay)
- Mercurey, Mercurey 1er Cru (Pinot Noir and Chardonnay)
- Givry, Givry 1er Cru (Pinot Noir and Chardonnay)
- Montagny, Montagne 1er Cru (Chardonnay)
What are Wines from the Maconnais famous for?
- Three times more white wine than the rest of Burgundy put together
- The world's greatest value for Chardonnay
- The Maconnais is a white wine producing area, while Beaujolais is red
Despite 25% of Maconnais planting Gamay grapes, and 7.5% planing Pinot Noir, why is white wine predominant?
The Gamay does not perform well on limestone soils
Name the AOCs of the Maconnais
- Macon (Village)
- Macon Superieur
- Macon Superieur (Village)
- Macon-Villages (41 villages)
- Many Macon-? AOCs
- Pinot Chardonnay-Macon
- Pouilly-Fuisse (famous)
Describe the Maconnais soil
The topsoil is scree and allumvium or clay and clay-sand, and covers a limestone subsoil
Name the appellations (AOCs) of Bordeaux
- Regional AOCs: Bordeaux, Bordeaux-Superieur (meaningless term)
- Subregional AOCs: Medoc, Graves, Entre Deux Mers
- Village AOCs: many
- Chateau AOCs - varies by subregion
Name the AOCs of the Medoc from north to south
- Moulis (or Moulis-En-Medoc)
- Margaux - largest commune, known for elegance and finesse
Name Bordeaux classifications other than AOCs
- Medoc Cru Bourgeois (self-instituted in 1932; updated in 1966, 1978, 2003; annulled in 2006)
- Vin de Pays de l'Atlantique
Name the 2003 classifications of Cru Bourgeois and how many chateaux were in each category
- 9 Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnels
- 87 Cru Bourgeois Superieurs
- 151 Cru Bourgeois
Name the 9 Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnels (2003-2006)
- Chateau Haut-Marbuzet (Saint-Estephe)
- Chateau de-Pez (Saint-Estephe)
- Chateau Ormes-de-Pez (Saint-Estephe)
- Chateau Phelan Segur (Sainto-Estephe)
- *Chateau Chasse-Spleen - Moulis)
- Chateau Poujeaux (Moulis)
- Chateau Labegorce Zede (Margaux)
- Chateau Siran (Margaux)
- *Chateau Potensac (Medoc)
How many Medoc Grands Crus Classes are there?
- 60 in the Medoc and 1 in Graves
- 1: 5
- 2: 14
- 3: 14
- 4: 10
- 5: 18
Name the 5 Grands Crus Classes of Saint-Estephe
- 1: 0
- 2: 2 Cos D'Estornel, Montrose
- 3: 1 Calon Segur
- 4: 1 Lafon-Rochet
- 5: 1 Cos Labory
Name the 18 Grands Crus Classes of Pauillac
- 1: 3 Latour, Lafite-Rothschild, Mouton-Rothschild
- 2: 2 Pichon-Longueville Baron, Pichon-Longueville Comtesse-de-Lalande
- 3: 0
- 4: 1 Duhart-Milon-Rothschild
- 5: 12 Lynch-Bages, Lynch-Moussas, Haut-Bages-Liberal, Croizer-Bages, Batailley, Haut-Batailley, Grand-Puy-Ducasse, Grand-Puy-Lacoste, D'Armailhac, Clerc-Milon, Pedesclaux, Pontet-Canet
Name the 11 Grands Crus Classes of Saint-Julien
- 1: 0
- 2: 5 Ducru-Beaucaillou, Gruaud-Larose, Leoville-Barton, Leoville-Las Cases, Leoville Poyferre
- 3: 2 Lagrange, Langoa-Barton
- 4: 4 Beychevelle, Branaire-Ducru, Saint-Pierre, *Talbot
- 5: 0
Name the 21 Grands Crus Classes of Margaux
- 1: 1 Margaux
- 2: 5 Brane-Cantenac, Durfort-Viviens, Lascombes, Rausan-Segla, Rauzan-Gassies
- 3: 10 Boyd-Cantenac, Cantenac-Brown, Desmirail, Ferriere, Giscours, d'Issan, Kirwan,
- Malescot-Saint-Exupery, Marquis d'Alesme-Becker, *Palmer
- 4: 3 Marquis-de-Terme, Pouget, Prieure-Lichine
- 5: 2 Dauzac, du Tertre
Name the 5 Grands Crus Classes of Haut-Medoc
- 1: 0
- 2: 0
- 3: 1 La Lagune
- 4: 1 La Tour-Rochet
- 5: 3 Belgrave, Camensac, Cantermerle
Name the 1 Grands Crus Classes of Graves
- 1: Haut-Brion - Pessac
- 2: 0
- 3: 0
- 4: 0
- 5: 0
Name the 5 Premier Grands Crus Classes
- Lafite-Rothschild - Pauillac
- Latour - Pauillac
- Mouton-Rothschild - Pauillac
- Margaux - Margaux
- Haut-Brion - Pessac (Graves)
Name the 14 Deuxieme Grands Crus Classes
- Cos-d'Estournel - Saint-Estephe
- Montrose - Saint-Estephe
- Pichon-Longueville Baron - Pauillac
- Pichon-Lalande - Pauillac (Pichon-Longueville Comtesse-de-Lalande)
- Ducru-Beaucaillou - Saint-Julien
- Gruaud-Larose - Saint-Julien
- Leoville-Barton - Saint-Julien
- Leoville-Las-Cases - Saint-Julien
- Leoville-Poyferre - Saint-Julien
- *Brane-Cantenac - Margaux
- Durfort-Viviens - Margaux
- Lascombes - Margaux
- *Rausan-Segla - Margaux
- Rauzan-Gassies - Margaux
Name the 14 Troisieme Grands Crus Classes
- Calon-Segur - Saint-Estephe
- Lagrange - Saint-Julien
- Langoa-Barton - Saint -Julien
- Desmirail - Margaux
- Ferriere - Margaux
- Giscours - Margaux
- d'Issan - Margaux
- Kirwan - Margaux
- Boyd-Cantenac - Margaux
- Cantenac-Brown - Margaux
- Malescot-Saint-Exupery - Margaux
- Marquis d'Alesme-Becker - Margaux
- *Palmer - Cantenac-Margaux
- La Lagune - Ludon-Haut Medoc
Name the 10 Quatrieme Grands Crus Classes
- Lafon-Rochet - Saint-Estephe
- Duhart-Milon-Rothschild - Pauillac
- Beychevelle - Saint-Julien
- Branaire-Ducru - Saint-Julien
- Saint-Pierre - Saint-Julien
- *Talbot - Saint-Julien
- Marquis-de-Terme - Margaux
- Pouget - Margaux
- Prieure-Lichine - Margaux
- La Tour-Carnet - Haut Medoc
Name the 18 Cinquieme Grands Crus Classes
- Cos-Labory - Saint-Estephe
- Batailley - Pauillac
- Clerc-Milon - Pauillac
- Croizet-Bages - Pauillac
- Grand-Puy-Ducasse - Pauillac
- Grand-Puy-Lacoste - Pauillac
- Haut-Bages-Liberal - Pauillac
- Haut-Batailley - Pauillac
- Lynch-Bages - Pauillac
- Lynch-Moussas - Pauillac
- Monton d'Armailhac - Pauillac
- Pedesclaux - Pauillac
- Pontet-Canet - Pauillac
- Dauzac - Margaux
- du Tertre - Margaux
- Belgrave - Haut Medoc
- Camensac - Haut Medoc
- Cantermerle - Haut Medoc
Name the 1 White Premier Cru Superieur
Name the 9 White Premier Crus
- La Tour Blanche
- Lafaurie-Peyraguey and CLos Haut-Peyraguey
- Rahaud-Promis and Sigalas-Rabaud
Name the 11 white Deuxieme Crus
- Doisy-Daene, Doisy-Dubroca, Doisy-Vedrines
- Rabaud-Promis (Pexoto)
- Brouslet and Nairac
- de Malle
- Romer and Romer-du-Hayot
- Lamothe and Lamothe-Gignard
Name the AOCs of Graves
- Graves (mostly dry reds)
- Graves Superieur (dry white)
- Pessac-Leognanc (all of the cru classes)
- Chateaux classified in 1953; reviewed in 1959; separate lists for red and white wine
- Cru Classe - No ranking within classification
- Cerons, Barsac, Sauteernes AOCs look like they are in Graves but are not.
Name the Chateaux in the 1953 Graves classification of Cru Classe
- Separate lists for 13 red wines and 10 white wines; 7 on both lists
- RED AND WHITE: (7)
- Haut-Brion (Pessac)
- Carbonnieux (Leognan)
- Domaine de Chevalier (Leognan)
- d'Oliver (Leognan)
- Malartic Lagraviere (Leognan)
- La Tour-Martillac (Martillac)
- Bouscaut (Cadaujac)
- RED ONLY: (6)
- Pape-Clement (Pessac)
- Haut-Bailly (Leognan)
- de Fieuzal (Leognan)
- Smith-Haut-Lafitte (Martillac)
- La Mission-Haut-Brion (Talence)
- Latour-Haut-Brion (Talence)
- WHITE ONLY: (3)
- Laville-Haut-Brion (Talence)
- Couhins-Lurton (Villenave d'Ornan)
- Couhins (Villenave d'Ornan)
Are all Graves Cru Classe in Pessac-Leognan AOC?
Yes (but not all wines in Pessac-Leognan are cru classe)
Describe the soils of Bordeaux
- Medoc and northern Graves: gravel
- St.Emilion: gravel over limestone
- Pomerol: iron pan under sand and clay
Describe the climate of Bordeaux
- Medoc: Gulf Stream gives the Medoc mild winters, warm summers, and long, sunny falls.
- Graves: slightly warmer and wetter than Medoc
What are the six grapes of Bordeaux?
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Cabernet Franc
- Malbec (aka Cot... dominant until 1959 freeze)
- Petit Verdot
- Carmenere (similar to Merlot... most widely planted grape in Chile)
What grapes dominates Bordeaux?
- Left Bank (of Garonne river): Cabernet Sauvignon
- Right Bank (of Dourdogne river): Merlot and/or Cabernet Franc
- Merlot is the most widely planted grape
Name 7 important chateau in Pomerol
- Petrus (95% Merlot, 5% CF)
- Chateau La Fleur ("Flower", 50% Merlot, 50% CF)
- Vieux Chateau Certan ("Old Castle") 50% Merlot, 25% CF, 20% CS, 5% Malbec)
- Le Pin (100% Merlot)
- La Conseillante (45% CF, 45% Merlot, 10% Malbec)
- L'Evangile ("Gospel", 78% Merlot, 22% CF)
- Trotanoy (90% Merlot, 10% CF)
Describe the classification in St.-Emilion
- Created in 1954, reviewed in 1969, 1985, 1996, and 2006
- Premier Grand Cru Classe Class A: 2 Chateau (Ausone, Cheval Blanc)
- Premier Grand Cru Classe Class B: 13 Chateau (l'Angelus, Beau-Sejour Becot, Beausejour, Belair Soil, Canon, Figeac, Fourtet, la Gaffeliere, Magdelaine, Pavie, Pavie Macquin, Troplong Mondot, Trottevieille)
- Grand Cru Classe: 68 Chateau
- Grand Cru - not part of classification... means nothing
Name the AOCs of the Right Bank (The Libournais and Fronsadais)
- Pomerol and satellite AOCs: Lalande-de-Pomerol(Neac can use this)
- St.Emilion and satellite AOCs: St.Georges-St.Emilion, Montagne-St.Emilion, Lussac-St.Emilion, Puisseguin-St.Emilion
- Fronsac, Cotes-Canon-Fronsac (Cabernet Franc)
- Bordeaux-Cotes-De-Francs (rustic reds dominated by Cabernet Franc)
- Premier Cote de Bordeaux (previously Cotes-de-Castillon)
- Cotes de Blaye, Blaye/Blayais
- Cotes de Bourg, Bourg/Bourgeais
What is vin de garagiste?
- Small properties with limited production (producing wine on a small scale)
- In 1979, Jacques Thienpont created Le Pin in a garage under a battered farmhouse.
Name the AOCs of Entre-Deux-Mers
- Bordeaux, Bordeaux Superieur,
- Premieres-Cotes-de-Bordeaux (37 communes can add its name to this AOC)
- Whites: Entre-Deux-Mers, Entre-Deux-Mers-Haut-Benauge and Bordeaux Haut-Benauge, Cotes-De-Bordeaux-St.-Macaire
- Reds and Whites: Sainte-Foy-Bordeaux, Graves de Vayres
- Sweet Wines: Loupiac, Sainte-Croix-Du-Mont, Cadillac (on the right bank of the Garonne river)
- (Cerons, Barsac, and Sauternes are on the left bank of the Garonne river)
Describe the soil in Entre-Deux-Mers
Boulbenes - very fine siliceous (acidic crystalline) soil that is easily compressed and hard to work
What grape varieties are grown in Entre-Deux-Mers?
- Primary: Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle
- Secondary: Merlot Blanc, Colombard, Mauzac, Ugni Blanc
Describe some markers for Semillion and Sauvignon Blanc
- Semillon: apple, fig, melon
- Sauvignon Blanc: crisp lemon, grapefruit
- Muscadelle: minor amounts used as a "spice" in Entre-Deux-Mers
What types of wine are made in Entre-Deux-Mers?
- Mostly inexpensive dry white
- Some reds and sweet wine
Name the only winery in France that is also an AOC
What is the #1 region for Biodynamic wine?
- Northern Rhone
- M. Chapoutier uses braille on his wine labels since "we're all blind to the world around us"
Does Loire have a regional AOC?
What was the first AOC in France?
- Chateauneuf-du-Pape (Originally "Vin du Pape")
- Named after Pope Clement V in the 14th century
Name some top Rhone producers
- Auguste Clape (Cornas)
- E. Guigal (Cote Rotie, Hermitage)
- Jasmin (Cote Rotie)
- J.L. Chave/Bernard Chave
- Chateau Beaucastel
- Chateau Rayes
Define Claret, Clairet, and Clairette
- Claret: English term for a dry red Bordeaux blend
- Clairet: Very dark rose in Bordeaux
- Clairette: Rhone grape variety
What types of soil do CS, CF, and Merlot like?
- Cabernet Sauvingnon: Gravel (e.g., Medoc, Graves)
- Cabernet Franc: Limestone (e.g., St.-Emilion)
- Merlot: Clay (e.g., Pomerol)
How many Chateau in Sauternes are classified?
- 1 Premier Grand Cru: d'Yquem
- 11 Premier Cru
- 14 Deuxiemes Cru
Name the 11 Premier Cru Chateau in Sauternes, by commune
- BOMMES (6):
- La Tour-Blanche
- Clos Haut-Peyraguey
- de Rayne-Vigneau
- BARSAC (2): Climens, Coutet
- SAUTERNES: Guiraud
- FARGUES: Rieussec
- PREIGNAC: Suduiraut
What does Pourriture Noble mean?
- French term for Botrytis cinerea
- Note: Botrytis is a generic term for rot but is often used as an abbreviation for Botrytis cinerea
Name the AOCs in Bourg and Blaye
- Blaye: white from Ugni Blanc, ...
- Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux AOC absorbed 3 former AOCs:
- Cotes de Blaye: white only from Merlot Blanc, Folle Blanche, ...
- Premieres Cote de Blaye: white from Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, ...
- Cote de Bourg: white from Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, ...
What type of wine is made in Bourg and Blaye?
- Mostly red wine
- No classification
- The Romans cultivated vines here before anywhere else in Bordeaux
Name some top Champagne producers
- Jacquesson (numbered cuvees)
- Pol Roger
- Louis Roederer
- Salon (all Grand Cru, cuvee S is best)
- Veuve Clicquot
- Taittinger (Comtes de Champagne is great, others not so much)
Name the non-sparkling AOCs in Champagne
- Coteaux Campenois: white/rose/red wines, vintage and NV
- Rose des Riceys: expensive and disappointing
Describe the Champagne Producer Codes
- CM: Cooperative de Manipulant - made by coop
- NM: Negociant-Manipulant - producer BOUGHT grapes (most common code)
- RM: Recoltant-Manipulant - producer GREW grapes
- RC: Recoltant-Cooperative - producer grew grapes but COOP made wine
- MA: Marque d'Acheteur - buyer's own brand (e.g., Kirkland)
- SR: Societe de Recoltant - company of related growers
- NR: Negociant-Distributeur - distributor
Who was the first producer of Champagne?
Gosset (originally a textile manufacturer)
What are the 8 steps in making Champagne using the Methode Traditionelle?
- Press: whole cluster (no crusher/destemmer), press quickly and gently to avoid color and oxidation
- Primary (alcoholic) fermentation: 7-10 days aerobic; MLC often happens; high acidity/low alcohol
- Blend (Assemblage"): blend varieties, vineyards, vintages
- Secondary fermention: seal wine with crown caps after adding LIQUEUR DE TIRAGE (same wine, sugar, yeast)
- Sur Lie Ageing: AUTOLSIS (grandual breakdown of yeast)
- Riddling (Rimuage): moving dead yeast to the neck of the bottle
- Disgorgement: remove yeast by freezing neck and opening crown cap
- Dosage ("dose of sugar"): LIQUEUR D'EXPEDITION (miniscule amount of same wine plus beet sugar)... excluding Extra Brut
- Cork, Label, and Bottle Age: shake bottle to mix dosage before putting in box
What are the 5 production methods for sparkling wines?
- From Best to Least Quality:
- Methode Traditionelle (aka Method Champanoie in Champagne) - only used for halfs, standards, and magnums
- Transfer Method
- Charmat Method (aka Cuve Close or Bulk Method)
- Methode Rurale (aka Methode Ancestrale)
Describe the Transfer Method of making sparkling wines
- Wine is filtered after secondary fermentation and then rebottled
- Advantages: Eliminates riddling and wine still spends time on lies
- Dirty little secret: This method is used for splits (quarter bottles) and large format (above Magnum) bottles
How long is Champagne aged?
- Primary fermentation: 7-10 days
- Secondary fermentation: 2-12 weeks
- Sur lie ageing: NV: 15 months; Vintage: 3 to 7 years
- Riddling: 3 months in the rack (Pupitre); 1-2 weeks in mechanical shakers (Gyro-Palette)
How much of a year's wine (in Champagne) must be preserved for future years?
By law, in vintage years, at least 20% must be retained for future NV years
Which sparkling wine makers still rack by hand?
- Salon, Krug, Shramsberg (many others only do this for their best wine)
- Taste tests show there is no difference in quality between hand or machine riddling.
List the names and capacity of large bottle sizes
- Each level after Jeroboam goes up 4 bottles (3 liters)
- Memory Aid: "Michael Jackson Makes Small Boys Nervous"
- Magnum: 1.5 l, 2 bottles
- Jeroboam: 3 l,, 4 bottles
- Methuselah: 6 l, 8 bottles
- Salmanazar: 9 l, 12 bottles
- Balthazar: 12 l, 16 bottles
- Nebachadnezzar: 15 l, 20 bottles
- Rehoboam: 4.5 l, 6 bottles, DISCONTINUED
List the terms for Champagne sweetness from least to most sweet
- Extra Brut (bone dry, aka Ultra Brut and non-dosage)
- Brut (dry)
- Extra Dry (slightly sweet)
List the terms related to Champagne vintages
- Non-Vintage (NV): $
- Vintage: $$, year the grapes were harvested, not necessarily better than NV, declared 6-7 times a decade
- Tete de Cuvee: $$$$, producer's best product... usually vintage
Describe the climate of Champagne
- Coldest and wettest fine wine region in France
- Chalky soil
- Formerly a still wine region
What are Dom Perignon and Madame Clicquot known for?
- Dom Perignon imported strong glass bottles from England (to stop his bottles from breaking)
- Madame Clicquot was a young widow ("veuve") who invented riddling and disgorgement, essentially inventing method traditionale
Describe the classification of wines in Champagne
- defined by villages; it's about blender's skill to achieve the house style
- Grand Cru (17) - best wines are not Grand Cru
- Premier Cru (40)
- Cru (> 200)
Name the regions of Champagne
- There are no AOCs within the Champagne AOC; Reims is the biggest city; Eperney is the "Beverly Hills" of Champagne; Marne river
- Chardonnay dominated regions: Cote de Blancs, Cote de Sezanne
- Pinot Noir dominated regions: Montagne de Reims, The Aube (aka, Cote de Bars)
- Pinot Meunier dominated regtions: Vallee de la Marne
Are there any red Champagnes?
No. Only white and rose wines are allowed.
Why is Champagne labeled Extra Dry actually slightly sweet?
- Focus group of U.S./U.K. consumers said they liked dry wine but tastings showed they liked sweet wine.
- Marketing uses this English term to sell Champagne.
Name 3 good Bordeaux vintages:
- Left Bank: 2005, 2003, 2000
- Right Bank: 2005, 2003, 2000, 1998, 1995
Name 3 good Rhone vintages:
2004, 2003, 2001
Name 3 good Sauterne vintages:
2003, 2001, 1999, 1997, 1990
Name 3 good Champagne vintages:
2005, 2000, 1999, 1996, 1995
What is the term for an Alsatian blend?
- Edelzwicker, or noble mixture, usually indicates its inverse. It need not be a blend, nor vintage dated, and is inexpensive.
- Getil is a superior designation for blends, requiring a minimum of 50% noble grapes.
Is hand-harvesting required for all Alsace Grand Crus?
Are all Alsacian Grand Crus labeled as such?
No. Trimback Clos-Ste-Hune and Hugel do not promote admissable wines as Alsace Grand Cru AOP.
What is the only red varietal permitted for Alsace AOP wines?
What Alsace AOP allows Chardonnay in it's sparking wines?
Cremant d'Alsace. It also allows Riesling, Pinot Gris, and Auxerrois.
Describe the wines of Lorraine.
- Cotes de Toul AOP produced light red wines from Pinot Noir; rose wines, in a vin gris style, from Gamay and Pinot Noir; white wines from Auxerros and Aubin.
- The Moselle VDQS/AOP produces red, white, and rose wines from Gamay and Pinot Meunier.
Describe the Jura's climate
Continental, turning harshly cold in winter.
What varietal is vin jaune made from?
Savagnin (grown on limestone and marl)
What is Savagnin also known as?
Name Jura AOCs
Cotes du Jura
List the post-2009 French Wine Classifications
- *** MISINTERPRETATION - The following is NOT correct ***
- Appellation d'Origine Prot�g�e (AOP)
- Indication G�ographique Prot�g�e (IGP)
- Vin de France (Table Wine)
What are the AOC, VDQS, VDP, VDT classifications changing to?
- *** MISINTERPRETATION - The following is NOT correct ***
- AOC --> Appellation d�Origine Prot�g�e (AOP)
- Vin Delimit� de Qualit� Superieure (VDQS, or AOVDQS) --> becomes AOP or IGP.
- Vin de Pays (VDP), overseen by VINIFLHOR --> Indication G�ographique Prot�g�e (IGP); regional, departmental, and local.
- Table wines (Vin de Table, or Vin Ordinaires) --> Vin de France, and both vintage and varietal may now appear on the label.
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