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What is Synarthrosis?
immovable (largely restricted to the axial skeleton)
What is Amphiarthrosis?
slightly movable (largely restricted to the axial skeleton)
What is Diathroses?
freely movable (predominate in the limbs)
Structurally, joints are classified as what 3 joints?
fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial joints
What are fibrous joints?
immobile or minutely mobile (examples: joints of cranium and teeth)
What are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
- suture (short fibers) - immoble
- syndemosis (longer fibers) - slightly mobile
- gomphosis (periodontal ligament) - immoble
What are sutures?
immovable joints formed by skull bones & connected by fibrous tissue
What is syndemosis?
slightly movable but no true movement, formed by a ligament band of fibrous tissue. Amount of movement depends on length of the connecting fibers.
What is gomphoses?
immobile and is a peg in socket as in the tooth and gum containing a small ligament
What are cartilaginous joints?
articulating bones are united by cartilage, no joint cavity, not highly moveable
What 2 types does cartilaginous joints contain?
- synchondrosis (hyaline cartilage) - immobile
- Symphysis (fibrocartilage) - slightly movable
What is synchondroses?
hyaline cartilage that unites bones as in the ribs and sternum (immobile)
What is symphysis?
fibrocartilage that unites bones (growing together) as in the pubic symphysis and intervetrebral bones. Symphyses are slightly movable joints that provide strength with flexibility because fibrocartilage resists both tension and compression stresses & can act as a resilient shock absorber.
What are synovial joints?
most moveable, has fluid filled cavity with synovial fluid, called diarthrosis, covered with articular cartilage
What do hyaline cartilage do in synovial joints?
lines the ends of bones
What is fibrous capsule?
synovial joints are contained by a fibrous capsule, a cavity filled with fluid called synovial fluid (makes synovial fluid)
What is synovial fluid?
viscous liquid that lubricates the joint
What are ligaments and nerves?
- ligaments - reinforce the joint
- nerves - protect it from over stretching
What is a bursa?
fibrous pouches made up of lined with synovial membranes. Bursa is a flattened fibrous sac and occurs where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones overlie each other and rub together
What are tendon sheathes?
have same compnents as bursa, but are longer and wider, more like a sheath.
What is the function (mobility) of synovial joints?
highly lubricated to facilitate motion, routinely experience compression, and the fluid moves to accomodate the pressure
What is the synovial joint stability?
ligaments strengthen the joint and prevent it from moving incorrectly, not as flexible and capable of reshaping
What are plane joints?
- flat articulating surfaces that allow for short gliding movements as in the wrist bones (intercarpals), ankle bones (intertarsals), and vertebral bones, no rotation around an axis (non-axial)
- - only occurs along the plane of the joint surface
- - short gliding movements
What are hinge joints?
- movement is along one plane (uniaxial). examples are elbow and knee (
- - allow movement around one axis only
- -flexion and extension
What are pivot joints?
- rounded end of one bone fits into the other, also uniaxial. examples are the radius & ulna and atlas & dens
- - rounded end of one bone fitrs into a ring that is formed by another bone plus an encircling ligament
- - rotation
What are condyloid joints?
- knucle like, oval like shape of one bone fits into an oval bowl like shape of the other. It does not rotate around its axis but can move side to side and back and forth, it is biaxial. (examples: knucle or metacarpophalangeal joint spreadning fingers apart/together or flex/extend them)
- - cannot rotate around its long axis
- - flexion & extension; adduction and abduction
What are saddle joints?
- two ends fit into one another as a person sitting in a saddle does. They are biaxial such as the thumb joint (first carpometacarpal joint)
- - each articular surface has both convex and concave areas
- - adduction/abduction, flexion/extension
What are ball & socket joints?
spherical end fits into round socket, allows movement in multiple planes of axis (triaxial) such as the hip and shoulder
- flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, rotation
What is temporamandibular joint?
TMJ - a synovial joint that has an articular capsule, hinge like movement, & anterior movement. It is so shallow and can be easily dislocated
What is the shoulder joint?
less stable, but more movable. glenoid fossa is lined with fibrocartilage callled genoid labrum, ligaments supprt limb weight, and muscle tendons contribute to stability. This joint has a rotator cuff formed by tendons & also has bursa and tendon sheaths
What is the elbow joint?
stable hinge joint with the ligaments stabilizing & preventing lateral/medial movements
What is the knee joint?
largest & most complex including the femur, tibia, && patella
What is the job of the lateral & medial menisci?
guide the condyles
What are the 3 anterior ligaments in the knee originating from patella to tibia?
patellar ligament, medial & lateral ligament
What is the job of the fibular & tibial collateral ligaments?
support the joint capsule
What is a sprain?
stretch or torn ligaments
What is a dislication (luxation)?
bones are forced out of alignment & must be reduced (returned to original location).
What is subluxation?
a partial dislocation
What is torn cartilage?
when it is subjected to high compression & tension. example: meniscus tearing. Does not heal itself thus broken fragments are removed by arthroscipic surgery
What is bursitis/tendonitis?
swelling of the bursa or tendon sheaths
What is arthritis?
inflammation or degeneration of the joints
What are the 4 types of arthritis?
- osteoarthiritis - joints wearing out where use of joint causes enzyme that breakdown the cartilage to breakdown.
- rheumatoid arthritis - immune system attacks the cartilage causing inflammation & muscle weakness (affects women more than men)
- gouty arthritis - uric acid accumulates in joints causing inflammation at the joints (affects men more than women)
- lyme disease - bacteria transmitted by tick bites causes joint inflammation & many other symptoms (difficult to diagnose and treat)
What is circumduction?
a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction (making a circle)
What are the only 3 areas that can make rotation and what is rotation?
Rotation is a movement of bone along its own axis with only 3 areas that can do this: atlas and axis, shoulder joint, and hip joint.
What is supination and pronation?
- supination - lateral radial rotation to turn palm anteriorly (palm up)
- pronation - medial radial rotation to turn palm posteriorly (palm down)