Astronomy

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Author:
elz125
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72846
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Astronomy
Updated:
2011-03-14 13:44:23
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astronomy
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astronomy
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  1. Processes that effect the surfaces of planets
    • erosion
    • tectonics
    • volcanism
    • meteor impacts
  2. Tectonics
    movement of the surface of the crust (mountain building, earthquakes)
  3. *Volcanism
    volcanoes and volcanic eruptions (almost every planet and moon)
  4. *Meteor impacts
    • one process most important for shaping surface of planets
    • craters
  5. Mars
    evidence of water once flowing and erosion
  6. Volcanic eruptions and erosion
    can wear a surface smooth
  7. Crater count
    counting amount of craters in an area and dividing that number by the area (tells you how old a surface is)
  8. Jupiter moons
    • Callisto- oldest surface in solar system
    • Io- youngest and most volcanically active
  9. Craters
    form 20 times bigger than object that caused crater
  10. Types of craters
    • punch bowl/simple crater
    • central-peaked crater
    • multi-ringed impact basin
  11. Punch bowl crater
    • smallest
    • usually caused by objects less than 1 mile in diameter
  12. Central-peaked crater
    • group of mountains in middle of crater
    • created by objects 1-5 miles wide
  13. Multi-ringed impact basin crater
    • largest
    • multiple rings spread out from center
    • at least 5 mile wide impacter
  14. Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs)
    asteroids we worry about hitting earth
  15. Olympus Mons
    • largest volcano in solar system (on mars)
    • shield volcano
  16. Shield volcano
    • most common in solar system
    • least violent eruptions
    • large craters in center (caldera) irregularly shaped unlike impact craters
  17. Mauna Loa
    largest volcano on earth
  18. Mare
    • lava plains (largest volcanic feature)
    • flood basalt
  19. Revolution
    • the planet's year
    • amount of time to go once around the sun
  20. Rotation
    time it takes planet to rotate once on its axis
  21. Solar day
    time between consecutive sunrises or sunsets
  22. Spin orbit resonance
    • 3:2
    • tidal locking
  23. Key to planetary geologic processes
    size
  24. Planetary geologic processes for a small planet (mercury)
    • heat from formation- small = gone
    • radioactive material- less = small amounts of heat = no heat now (cold)
    • geological activity- dead (geologically)
  25. Planetary geologic processes for a large planet (earth)
    • heat from formation- lots = some left
    • radioactive material- more = some left, large amounts of heat = still hot inside
    • geological activity- active (geologically)
  26. Atmospheres
    initally: CO2 and H2O vapor (terrestrial planets)
  27. Factors that affect the atmosphere
    • size- mass = gravity
    • temperature = average speed
  28. Escape velocity
    • minimum velocity an object needs to escape a planet's gravity
    • earth = 11 km/s or 7 miles/s
    • mars = 5 km/s or 3 miles/s
    • mercury = 4 km/s or 2.5 miles/s
    • moon = 2 km/s or 1 mile/s
  29. Venus
    • temp = 500 degress celsius (greenhous effects)
    • no water in atmosphere
  30. Mars
    • temp = -60 degrees celsius
    • weak gravity
    • lost most of atmosphere due to ablation
  31. Ablation
    • stripping away of an atmosphere by impacts
    • collisions strip away part of a planet's atmosphere
  32. Lobate scarp
    giant (mile high) cliff on Mercury and the moon (no internal heat)
  33. Venus
    • coronae
    • regio
    • maxwell montes (only male name on venus)
  34. Earth
    • only planet with water
    • composition: 36% Fe, 28% O, 14% Si
    • silicate crust and mantle
    • liquid outer core
    • solid inner core
  35. Magnetosphere of a planet
    the region of space surrounding a planet where its magnetic field deflects away the solar wind
  36. Solar flares
    • aurora borealis (northern lights)
    • aurora australis (southern lights)
    • solar wind, planet's magnetic field, and planet's atmosphere
  37. Continental crust
    • made of granite (light, buoyant)
    • relativiely think, but light
  38. Oceanic crust (sea floor)
    • made of basalt (denser/heavier than granite, sinks into earth)
    • makes up 2/3 of earth's crust
  39. Tectonic/lithospheric plates
    slide around on earth's surface and collide with each other or bounce off each other and separate
  40. Convection cell
    helps push plates around on surface
  41. Plate tectonics
    • the key to the existance of the asthenosphere is water
    • plate tectonics would not exist without the asthenosphere
    • *therefore, without water, there are no plate tectonics and no life
  42. Types of plate tectonics
    • 1. plates separate- divergent plate boundary (mid-oceanic ridge/spreading center), sea floor grows and spreads at divergent plate boundary
    • 2. colliding plates- convergent plate boundary (subduction zone), sinking plate (subducts), volcanic arc
    • 3. plates sideswipe- transform plate boundary
  43. Earth's atmosphere
    CO2 and H2O to 80% N2 and 20% O2
  44. Photosynthesis
    plants combine CO2 + sunlight + H2O

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