Bio 2113 Final Review

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moses1424
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Bio 2113 Final Review
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2011-03-21 22:50:47
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Bio Final Review
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Bio 2113 Final Review
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  1. Levels of Structure
    • Chemical
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ System
    • Organism
  2. Homeostasis
    • •Maintenance of a
    • relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes.
    • •A dynamic state of
    • equilibrium.
  3. Ventral / anterior
    • Towards the front of the body
    • In front of
  4. Dorsal / Posterior
    • In the rear of the body
    • behind
  5. Superior / cranial
    • Towards the head or upper part of the body
    • Above
  6. Inferior / Caudal
    • Away from the head
    • below
  7. Medial
    • Towards the midline
    • on the inner side of
  8. Lateral
    • Away from the midline of the body
    • on the outer side of
  9. Intermediate
    Between a more medial and lateral structure.
  10. Proximal
    Closer to the origin of an extremity.
  11. Distal
    Farther from the origin of attachment to the body.
  12. Superficial
    Towards or at the body surface.
  13. Deep
    Away from the surface of the body.
  14. frontal plane
    Divides the body in front and rear halves.
  15. Median or midsagittal plane
    Divides the body into left and right halfs
  16. Transverse Plane
    Divides the body into top and bottom.
  17. Dorsal Body Cavity
    • Vertibral Cavity
    • Cranial Cavity
  18. Cranial Cavity
    contains the brain
  19. Vertibral Cavity
    Spinal cord
  20. Ventral body cavity
    • Contains:
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • abdominopelvic cavities
  21. Thoracic Cavity
    Contains Heart and lungs
  22. Sub divisions of thoracic cavity.
    • Superior Mediastinum
    • Plural Cavity
    • Pericardial cavity within mediastinum
  23. Abdominal Cavity
    Contains digestive viscera
  24. Pelvic Cavity
    • contains urinary tract
    • reproductive organs
  25. Elements that make up 96% of body mass
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
  26. Neutron Weight
    1 atomic mass unit
  27. proton
    1 AMU
  28. Electrons
    • = to the number of protons
    • 1/2000th of mass
  29. Ionic Bonds
    • Ions are formed by transfer of valence shell electrons between atoms
    • Attraction of opposite
    • charges results in an ionic bond
  30. Water
    • 60-80% volume of living cells.
    • Absorbs heat with little temp. change.
    • Used as cooling mechanism.
    • Dissolves ionic substances.
    • Body's main transport medium.
  31. Carbohydrates
    • Sugars and starches.
    • Carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen.
    • Three classes:
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
    • Major source of cellular
    • fuel
  32. Lipids
    • Contains O,C,H and sometimes P
    • Insoluble in water
    • Main types:
    • Neutral fats or triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Steroids
    • Eicosanoids
  33. Proteins
    • Polymers of Amino acids (20 types)
    • Joined by peptide bonds
    • Contain C, H, O, N, and sometimes S and P
  34. Enzymes
    • Biological catalysts.
    • Lower the activation energy, increase the speed of a reaction (millions of reactions per minute!).
  35. Membrane Transport
    • Plasma membranes are selectively permeable.
    • Some molecules easily pass through the membrane; others do not.
  36. What is the difference between active and passive transport?
    • Active: Requires carrier proteins (solute pumps)
    • Moves solutes against concentration gradient. Only in living cells.
    • Passive transport: no cellular energy (ATP) required.
    • Substances move down it's concentration gradient.
  37. Simple Diffusion
    • Kinetic energy
    • Movement of O2 through phospholipid bilayer
  38. Facilitated Diffusion
    • Kinetic energy
    • Movement of glucose into cells
  39. Osmosis
    • Kinetic energy
    • Movement of H2O through phospholipid bilayer or AQPs
  40. Rough Er
    Smooth Er
    • Smooth \/

    Rough /\
  41. nucleus, Golgi apparatus, RER, mitochondria, cell
    membrane
  42. DNA
    The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints, like a recipe or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules.
  43. RNA
    RNA molecules play an active role in cells by catalyzing biological reactions
  44. Chromatin
    • Threadlike strands of DNA(30%)
    • histone proteins (60%)
    • and RNA (10%)
    • •Arranged in fundamental
    • units called nucleosomes
    • •Condense into barlike
    • bodies called chromosomes when the cell starts to divide
  45. Transcription
    Transfers DNA gene base sequence to a complementary base sequence of an mRNA
  46. Translation
    • Converts base sequence of
    • nucleic acids into the amino acid sequence of proteins
    • Involves mRNAs, tRNAs, and
    • rRNAs
  47. list the stages of mitosis in order
    • Interphase
    • •Prophase
    • •Metaphase
    • •Anaphase
    • •Telophase
  48. What stage of mitosis does DNA synthesis take place.
    Interphase
  49. Properties of Water.
    • High surface tension because of hydrogen bonds.
    • 60-80% of living cells
    • Prevents sudden temperature change.
    • Disolves ionic compounds.
    • Transport Medium
  50. carbohydrates
    • •Sugars and starches
    • •Contain C, H, and O [(CH20)n]
    • •Three classes
    • •Monosaccharides
    • •Disaccharides
    • •Polysaccharides
  51. lipids
    • •Contain
    • C, H, O (less than in carbohydrates), and sometimes P
    • •Insoluble in water
    • •Main types:
    • •Neutral fats or triglycerides
    • •Phospholipids
    • •Steroids
    • •Eicosanoids
  52. proteins
    • Polymers of amino acids (20 types)
    • Joined by peptide bonds
    • Contain C, H, O, N, and sometimes S and P
  53. Enzymes
    • Biological catalysts
    • Lower the activation energy, increase the speed of a reaction
    • (millions of reactions per minute!)

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