Intro to Bio

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Intro to Bio
2011-03-14 16:49:33
Atom molecule

Chapter 1
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  1. Define Atom
    • Fundamental building blocks of ALL matter. Living and non-living.
    • Smallest unit of an element that still retains the element’s properties.
  2. Define MOLECULE
    • Two or more joined atomsof the same or different elements.
    • The “molecules of life” are complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA.
  3. Define CELL
    • Smallest unit that can live and reproduce on its own or as part of a multicellular organism.
  4. Tissue
    Organized cells and substances that interact in a specialized activity.
  5. ORGAN
    • Two or more tissues interacting in some task.
    • A parrotfish eye, for example, is a sensory organ used in vision.
    Organs interacting physically, chemically, or both in some task. Parrotfish skin is an organ system with tissue layers, organs such as glands, and other parts.
  7. Multicelled Organism
    Individual made of different types of cells. Cells of most organisms, including this Red Seaparrotfish, are organized as tissues, organs, and organsystems.
  8. Population
    • Group of single-celled or multicelled individuals of the same species occupying a specified area.
    • This is a fish population.
  9. Community
    • All populations of all species occupying a specified area.
    • For Example:
    • Corral Reef
  10. Ecosystem
    • A community that is interacting with its physical environment. It has inputs and outputs of energy and materials.
  11. Biosphere
    • All regions of the Earth’s waters, crust, and atmosphere that hold organisms.
    • Earth is a rare planet; without its abundance of free-flowing water,there would be no life.
  12. All living things have 3 similar characteristics.What are they?
    • Require energy and nutrients.
    • Sense and respond to change.
    • Reproduce with the help of DNA.
  13. Energy
    The capacity to do work.
  14. Nutrient
    Substance that is necessary for survival, but that an organism can’t make for itself.
  15. Producers
    • Organisms that make their own food using energy andsimple raw materials from the environment
    • Example: Plants
  16. Consumers
    • Organisms that get energy and carbon by feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms.
    • Example: Animals
  17. Decomposers
    Obtain energy by breaking down remains and wastes.
  18. Homeostasis
    • Set of processes by which an organism keeps its internal conditions within tolerable ranges.
  19. Receptor
    Molecule or structure that responds to a stimulus.
  20. Growth
    Increase in size, volume, and number of cells in multicelled species.
  21. Development
    Multistep process by which the first cell of a new individual becomes a multicelled adult.
  22. Inheritance
    Transmission of DNA from parents to offspring.
  23. Energy Flow Summary
    • • Usually starts with energy from the sun
    • • Transfers from one organism to another
    • • Flows in one direction
    • • Eventually is lost as heat
  24. Scientific Name
    Each species is given a unique two-part name that includes genus and species names (system devised by Carolus Linnaeus).
  25. Species

    A type of organism

    Group of species that share a unique set of traits
  26. 8 Levels of Classification
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species

    (Dumb) Kids Pick Candy Over Fancy Green Salads)
  27. One system sorts all organisms into one of three domains:
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  28. Eukaryotes
    • Single- or multicelled
    • Nucleus
    • Larger, more complex
    • (Fungi, Protists ,Plants, Animals)
  29. Prokaryotes
    • Single celled
    • No nucleus
    • Smaller, less complex
    • (Archaebacteria, Eubacteria)
  30. Protists
    Single celled to multi-celled colonial eukaryotic organisms- that are not plants, animals, or fungi
  31. Archaea
    • Prokaryotes
    • Live in extreme environments
  32. Critical Thinking
    Mental process of judging the quality of information before deciding whether or not to accept it.
  33. Science
    The systemic study of nature
    • How Science Works:
    • Researchers make and test potentially falsifiable predictions about how the naturalworld works.

    • Generally, scientific inquiry involves forming a hypothesis (testable assumption) about an observation then making and testing predictions based on the hypothesis.
    • A hypothesis that is not consistent with the results of scientific tests is modified or discarded!!
  34. Experimental Group
    A group of objects or individuals that display or are exposed to a variable under investigation.
  35. Control Group
    A group of objects or individuals that is identical to an experimental group except for one variable!