Histo Lecture 13

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Histo Lecture 13
2011-03-14 15:46:08

Acid-Base Balance
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  1. What is the normal range of pH in the body?
  2. What are the 3 organs that affect acid-base balance?
    • Kidneys
    • Lungs
    • Liver
  3. How do kidneys affect pH?
    • Excreting acid
    • Reabsorbing HCO3
    • Excreting NH4+
    • Creating new HCO3-
  4. How do lungs affect pH?
    Alteration in PCO2
  5. How does the liver affect pH?
    • Metabolizes NH4+ into urea (lowers pH)
    • Uses H+ in gluconeogensis (raises pH)
  6. Kidneys secrete NH4+ as a mechanism of eliminating what?
  7. Each molecule of NH4+ excreted results in formation of what?
  8. NH4+ not excreted in urine is converted into what by the liver?
  9. Acidosis stimulates what in the nephron?
    H+ secretion
  10. Chemoreceptors detect PCO2 and pH to regulate what?
    ventilatory rate
  11. Increased respiratory rate does what?
    • Decraesed PCO2
    • Increased pH
  12. What can cause metabolic acidosis?
    • Diabetic ketoacidosis
    • Diarrhea (loss of HCO3-)
    • Kidney failure (inhibition of H+ excretion)
  13. What can cause metabolic alkalosis?
    • Volume contraction (hemorrhage, loss of ECF)
    • Excessive antacid ingestion
    • Loss of acid (vomiting)
  14. What can cause respiratory acidosis? (Hypoventilation)
    • Lung Disease
    • Depressed respiratory center (sedative drugs, anaesthetics)
  15. What can cause respiratory alkalosis? (hyperventilation)
    • Drugs (caffeine, aspirin, doxapram)
    • Disorders of CNS (Stroke, meningitis)
    • High altitude
    • Anxiety, pain, fear
  16. What is normal value of HCO3?
  17. What are the three steps in assessing acid-base balance disorders in the lab?
    • Assess pH level
    • Determine metabolic v. respiratory disorder
    • Analyze compensatory response to pH change
  18. What are symptoms of metabolic acidosis?
    • Lethargy, confusion, rapid and shallow breathing
    • Shortness of breath
    • Easily fatigable, sleepiness
    • Dehydration
    • Coma in severe cases (uncontrolled diabetes mellitus)
  19. What are some symptoms of respiratory acidosis?
    • Shortness of breath
    • headache, drowsiness
    • Progression of stupor and coma
  20. What are some symptoms of alkalosis?
    • Light-headedness, syncope
    • Shortness of breath
    • Muscle twitching, muscle spasm, hand tremor
    • Numbness or tingling of face and extremities