Three substances that are components of body fluid.
Electrolytes, Acids, Bases
What will cause an electrical charge when disolved in water?
This releases Hydrogen (H) once it is in fluid.
This will bind with Hydrogen (H) once Acid is in fluid?
Your body weight is made up of what % of fluid?
50% to 60%
Does a male or female have more body fluid?
What are the two main locations for fluid in the body?
Exteracellular - Vascular, interstitial, and all other cavities.
The average amt of fluid consumed by an adult is?
The four ways we lose fluids are?
4. Bowel elimination
Sweating and breathing fluid loss can or can not be measured?
What are the five ways in which water and disolved water are relocated in the body?
3. Passive Diffusion
4. Facillitated Diffusion
5. Active Transport
Movement of water thru a simi permeable membrane from an area of lesser concentrate to an area of higher concentrate until the areas on both sides are equal is called?
Where ever salt goes _________ follows.
The quantity of substances that is disolved in the water is called?
Large sized substances such as Serum Proteins Called _________ that do not pass through cell and tissue membrane are? examples are? 3 of them.
__________ promotes the movement of fluid and some disolved substances through a semipermeable membrane. From an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
The average adult will filter ________
liters of fluid per day?
___________ is a physiologic process by which disolved substances (e.g., electrolytes) move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a semipermeable membrane.
Certain dissolved substances require assistance from a carrier molecule to pass through a semipermeable membrane. Ex Insulin and glucose
_______ requires an energy source, a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to drive disolved chemicals from an area of low concentrate to high concentrate. Ex. Sodium leaving cell to higher concentrate outside.
Active transport - the opposite of passive diffussion.
Three mechanisms that help regulate our fluid and our electrolyte balance. Regulated by the Hypo Thalamus.
Rapid IV infussion, patient size, heart failure, and excess salt is a cause of _________.
Adrenal gland failure by releasing to much cortoid steriod (makes you retain water) can be a cause for?
S/S Weight gain, elevated BP, increased breathing effort, pitting edema (3 L excess fld), dependent edema (edema in the the areas most effected by gravity), and STRICT FLUID RESTRICTIONS,
The trans location of fluid from the intravascular or intercellular to tissue compartments where it becomes trapped and useless is refferred to as?
Normal sodium (Na+) levels are?
135 - 145
Normal Potassium (K+) levels.
3.5 - 5
Excess sodium in the blood. Causes include profuse watery diarrhea, excessive salt intake without sufficient water intake, high fever, decreased water intake.
Low potassium levels, Lasix, Edecrin, Hydro-DIURIL, HCTZ (potassium wasting diuretics) can contribute is called.
1. Can be the most dangerous.
S/S Leg ramps, large doses of steroids, IV Insulin, non electrlyte flds, irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
Eat: Potatoes, figs, oranges, bananas
To much potassium in an IV can burn the veins and needs to be changed more often than other IVs. Red streak up the arm burning.
If the renal system is not working properly, burn patients, salt substitutes, crushing injuries.
Kexalate enema, regular insulin and glucose (will temp potassium back into cells in 30 minutes), Severe severe: perineal dialysis.
Normal Calcium (Ca+) level is?
Normal inonized Calcium lvl is?
1. 9 - 11 mg
2. 4.4.- 5.4
Low calcium level is?
High calcium level is?
99% of Calcium (Ca+) is found in?
Bones and teeth
What regulates serum levels of calcium?
_________ is needed for blood to clot as well as all muscle functions.
In order to absorb calcium you need what vitamin?
S/S Tingling of Extremities and the ring around the mouth, Positive Chvostek's Sign(spasms of the facial muscle when the facial nerve is tapped), Trousseau (spasm od fingers, hand, wrist), larnyx spasm and Tetany( muscle twitches).
S/S Parathyroid tumor, pain in the bones, constapated, polyuria(urinate a lot), thirsty,
Normal Magnesium levels?
1.3 - 2.1
Found primarily in the bone, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle.
Cronic alcoholism, diabetic ketoacidosis, severe renal disease, severe burns,severe malnutrition, PIH Pregnancy induced hypertension,
S/S Renal failure, abuse of antacids, flushing and warm.
Antidote: Calcium Gluconate
Acid base balance
+ Hydrogen increases acidity
- Hydrogen increases base
The kidneys and lungs are responsible.
What are the 2 types of acid-base imbalances.
Acidosis - excessive acid
Alkalosis - excessive base
Normal PH is?
7.35 - 7.45
A condition that results in decreased Plazma PH because of increased organic acids.