Med Surg Cha 16

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  1. Three substances that are components of body fluid.
    Electrolytes, Acids, Bases
  2. What will cause an electrical charge when disolved in water?
  3. This releases Hydrogen (H) once it is in fluid.
  4. This will bind with Hydrogen (H) once Acid is in fluid?
  5. Your body weight is made up of what % of fluid?
    50% to 60%
  6. Does a male or female have more body fluid?
  7. What are the two main locations for fluid in the body?
    • Exteracellular - Vascular, interstitial, and all other cavities.
    • Intracellular
  8. The average amt of fluid consumed by an adult is?
    2500 mL
  9. The four ways we lose fluids are?
    • 1. Urination
    • 2. Sweating
    • 3. Breathing
    • 4. Bowel elimination
  10. Sweating and breathing fluid loss can or can not be measured?
    Can not
  11. What are the five ways in which water and disolved water are relocated in the body?
    • 1. Osmosis
    • 2. Filtration
    • 3. Passive Diffusion
    • 4. Facillitated Diffusion
    • 5. Active Transport
  12. Movement of water thru a simi permeable membrane from an area of lesser concentrate to an area of higher concentrate until the areas on both sides are equal is called?
  13. Where ever salt goes _________ follows.
  14. The quantity of substances that is disolved in the water is called?
  15. Large sized substances such as Serum Proteins Called _________ that do not pass through cell and tissue membrane are? examples are? 3 of them.

    • 1. albumin
    • 2. globulin
    • 3. fibrinogen
  16. __________ promotes the movement of fluid and some disolved substances through a semipermeable membrane. From an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
  17. The average adult will filter ________
    liters of fluid per day?
    180 L
  18. ___________ is a physiologic process by which disolved substances (e.g., electrolytes) move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a semipermeable membrane.
    Passive Diffussion
  19. Certain dissolved substances require assistance from a carrier molecule to pass through a semipermeable membrane. Ex Insulin and glucose
    Facilitated Diffusion
  20. _______ requires an energy source, a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to drive disolved chemicals from an area of low concentrate to high concentrate. Ex. Sodium leaving cell to higher concentrate outside.
    Active transport - the opposite of passive diffussion.
  21. Three mechanisms that help regulate our fluid and our electrolyte balance. Regulated by the Hypo Thalamus.
    • 1. Osmoreceptors
    • 2. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
    • 3. Atrial Natriuretic Peptides: Hormone-like substances (ANP)
  22. _________ release or inhibit anti diuretic hormone (ADH). Prevent urination. Monitors fluid and electrolyte balance.
  23. Found inside the blood streem and monitors the Osmolarity of your blood is?
  24. When the serum concentration is increased osmoreceptors will stimulate the hypo thalamus to produce ADH from the posterior Pituitary Gland causing urine output to
    decrease/slow down to save fluid. ADH stimulates the kidneys to absorb water.
  25. Osmorecptors stimulate thirst? Thirst kicks in when the average human loses 700 mL?

  26. Osmorecptors are _________ neurons?
  27. Baroreceptors are _________ receptors and are located in the Aortic arch and the Carotid?
  28. _________ signals the brain to release ADH when the blood volume drops 10% and the systolic blood pressure drops below 90 and or the (L) Atria has low volume.
  29. A chain of chemicals that is released to increase both blood pressure and volume.
    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
  30. When blood flow to the Kidneys is decreased _________ is released to cause vaso constriction to raise blood pressure? It also triggers the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex.
  31. Hormone like substances that act in opposition to the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and are synthesized in the ventricles of the heart.
    Natriuretic peptides (ANP).
  32. ANP and BNP are produced in the ______ but CNP is pruduced in the _______
    • 1. Heart
    • 2. Brain
  33. Over streatching of the heart walls due to hypervolemia triggers the release of _________ which inhibits the release of renin.
    Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
  34. What are the two types of fluid imbalances?
    • 1. Hypovolemia
    • Hypo(low) vol(volume) emia(blood)
    • 2. Hypervolemia
    • Hyber (above)
  35. Fluid volume deficit in the extracellular space is?
    • 1. Hypovolemia
    • Hypo(low) vol(volume) emia(blood)
  36. Fluid volume deficit in both extracellular and intracellular space is
  37. Severe Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension is a S/S of _____________?
    As well as thirst, increase in hgt and blood cell levels.
    Electrolytes are usually normal.
  38. A high ratio of blood components in relation to watery plasma and puts you at risk for blood clots, uniary stones and compromises the kidneys ability to excrete nitrogen waste is?
  39. S/S Fld vol deficit / excess
    1. Weight Loss <2lbs in 24h deficit
    2. Low blood pressure deficit
    3. Temp elevated deficit
    4. Pulse rapid, weak, thready deficit
    5. Urine scant, dark yellow deficit
    6. Skin warm, flushed, dry deficit
    • 1. Skin pitting edema Excess
    • 2. Lungs crackels, gurgles Excess
  40. Rapid IV infussion, patient size, heart failure, and excess salt is a cause of _________.
  41. Adrenal gland failure by releasing to much cortoid steriod (makes you retain water) can be a cause for?
  42. S/S Weight gain, elevated BP, increased breathing effort, pitting edema (3 L excess fld), dependent edema (edema in the the areas most effected by gravity), and STRICT FLUID RESTRICTIONS,
  43. The trans location of fluid from the intravascular or intercellular to tissue compartments where it becomes trapped and useless is refferred to as?
  44. Normal sodium (Na+) levels are?
    135 - 145
  45. Normal Potassium (K+) levels.
    3.5 - 5
  46. Excess sodium in the blood. Causes include profuse watery diarrhea, excessive salt intake without sufficient water intake, high fever, decreased water intake.
  47. Low potassium levels, Lasix, Edecrin, Hydro-DIURIL, HCTZ (potassium wasting diuretics) can contribute is called.
    1. Can be the most dangerous.
  48. S/S Leg ramps, large doses of steroids, IV Insulin, non electrlyte flds, irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)

    Eat: Potatoes, figs, oranges, bananas
    • Hypokalemia
    • Low Potassium
  49. To much potassium in an IV can burn the veins and needs to be changed more often than other IVs. Red streak up the arm burning.
  50. If the renal system is not working properly, burn patients, salt substitutes, crushing injuries.
    • Hyperkalemia
    • High Potassium
  51. Kexalate enema, regular insulin and glucose (will temp potassium back into cells in 30 minutes), Severe severe: perineal dialysis.
    • Hyperkalemia
    • High Potassium
  52. Normal Calcium (Ca+) level is?
    Normal inonized Calcium lvl is?
    • 1. 9 - 11 mg
    • 2. 4.4.- 5.4
  53. Low calcium level is?
  54. High calcium level is?
  55. 99% of Calcium (Ca+) is found in?
    Bones and teeth
  56. What regulates serum levels of calcium?
  57. _________ is needed for blood to clot as well as all muscle functions.
  58. In order to absorb calcium you need what vitamin?
    Vitamin D
  59. S/S Tingling of Extremities and the ring around the mouth, Positive Chvostek's Sign(spasms of the facial muscle when the facial nerve is tapped), Trousseau (spasm od fingers, hand, wrist), larnyx spasm and Tetany( muscle twitches).
  60. S/S Parathyroid tumor, pain in the bones, constapated, polyuria(urinate a lot), thirsty,
  61. Normal Magnesium levels?
    1.3 - 2.1
  62. Found primarily in the bone, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle.
  63. Cronic alcoholism, diabetic ketoacidosis, severe renal disease, severe burns,severe malnutrition, PIH Pregnancy induced hypertension,
  64. S/S Renal failure, abuse of antacids, flushing and warm.

    Antidote: Calcium Gluconate
  65. Acid base balance

    + Hydrogen increases acidity
    - Hydrogen increases base
    The kidneys and lungs are responsible.
  66. What are the 2 types of acid-base imbalances.
    • Acidosis - excessive acid
    • Alkalosis - excessive base
  67. Normal PH is?
    7.35 - 7.45
  68. A condition that results in decreased Plazma PH because of increased organic acids.
    Metabolic acidosis

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Med Surg Cha 16
2011-03-15 03:02:04
Med Surg Cha

Med Surg Cha 16
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