Bio Exam 1

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Bio Exam 1
2011-03-14 17:07:05

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  1. Common features of all forms of life:
    • order (organized structure)
    • regulation
    • energy processing
    • response to the environment
    • reproduction, growth & development
    • evolutionary adaptation
  2. Basic building block of life:
  3. Homeostasis:
    maintain a stable, balanced, internal condition.
  4. 3 domains (groups) of life:
    • Archaea: like bacteria, prokaryotic, most are unicellular and microscopic.
    • Bacteria: prokaryotic, most are unicellular and microscopic.
    • Eukarya: eukaryotic, and contains a nucleus and organelles.
  5. Independent variable:
    "built-in" variable the scientist controls.
  6. Dependent variable:
  7. Matter:
    anything that has a mass and takes up space.
  8. Elements:
    pure substances that can't be broken down into other substances.
  9. Atom:
    smallest unit of matter.
  10. Compound:
    2 or more different elements mixed together in a fixed ratio.
  11. Atomic #=
    = protons; always smallest number
  12. Mass #=
    = protons + neutrons; always bigger number
  13. Neutron count=
    • = mass # - atomic #
    • or biggest - smallest
  14. Isotopes:
    atoms of the same element, but have a different amount of neutrons.
  15. Duet rule:
    Octet rule:
    inner shell can hold a max of 2 electrons.

    outer shells(s) can hold a max of 8 electrons.
  16. Outer shell of an atom is called:
    Valence shell
  17. Ions:
    charged atoms
  18. Ionic bond:
    giving and taking of electron(s) to fulfill octet rule and results in IONS.
  19. Covalent bond:
    -sharing of electrons to fulfill octet rule (strong bond).
  20. Hydrogen bond
    weak bond between molecules where + charged hydrogen is attracted to - pole of another molecule.
  21. Molecule:
    group of covalently bonded atoms.
  22. Non-polar covalent bond:
    equal sharing of electrons, no change in charge.
  23. Polar covalent bond:
    unequal sharing of electrons, change in charge.
  24. Hydrogen bonds form ________ molecules, covalent bonds form ________.
    between; within water molecules.
  25. Solution:
    mix of 2 or more substances.
  26. Solute:
    substance being dissolved in a solution.
  27. Solvent:
    dissolves solute.
  28. Hydrophillic:
    likes water; polar/ionic
  29. Hydrophobic:
  30. Like dissolves Like:
    if a solute is chemically similar (bond type) then the solute will dissolve well in the solvent.
  31. Cohesion:
    hydrogen bonds hold water molecules tightly together.
  32. Adhesion:
    hydrogen bonds between water molecules and other polar materials.
  33. Acid:
    substances that donate H+.
  34. Base:
    substance that donates OH; absorbes H+
  35. Buffer:
    minimize changes in pH.
  36. Acid range:
    Base range:
    • 0-6
    • 8-14
  37. Organic substances have ______, which can form ___ covalent bonds.
    carbon; 4
  38. Functional group:
    attachment pieces that give the molecule a certain function or characteristic.
  39. Macromolecules:
    BIG molecules
  40. Dehydration reaction:
    removes water to bond monomers together to form polymers.
  41. Hydrolysis:
    add water to break apart polymers back into monomers.
  42. What kinds of fat should be avoided?
    Saturated and Trans. fat
  43. Amino acid config:
  44. Carbohydrate:
    • -monosaccharide
    • -polysaccharide
    • -dehydration
    • -provide quick-burning energy
    • -bread, noodles, cereal
  45. Lipid:
    • -no true monomer; triglyceride
    • -n/a
    • -dehydration
    • -stored energy, insulation, water-proofing
    • -blubber, butter, waxes, steroids
  46. Protein:
    • -amino acid
    • -polypeptide
    • -dehydration
    • -long-burning energy, support/structure, enzymes, motion
    • -pork, beef, tofu
  47. Nucleic Acid:
    • -nucleotide
    • -polynucleotide
    • -dehydration
    • -blueprint for body
    • -DNA, RNA