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Type of Data
- Alphanumeric data - numbers, letters, and other characters
- Image data - Graphic images and pictures
- Audio data - sound, noise, or tones
- video data - moving images or pictures
Definition of Data, Information, and Knowledge
- Data - Raw Facts
- Information - Collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselved
- Process - Set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome
- Knowledge - Awareness and understanding of a set of information
the componen that helps organizations achieve their goals, such as increasing profits or improving customer service
What is an Information System?
- INPUT --> PROCESSING --> OUTPUT
- Input - gathering and capturing raw data
- Processing - converting or transforming data into useful outputs
- Output - Production of useful information, ususally in the form of documents and reports
- Feedback - Output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities
An information system can be:
What is a Computer-Based Information Systems (CBIS)
Single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, an procedures configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information
- -Hardware: computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities
- -Software: computer programs that govern the operation of the computer
- -Database: organized collection of facts and information
- -Telecommunications: Electronic transmission of signals of communications
- -Networks: connect computers and equipment in a building, around the country, and around the world
- -Internet: world's largest computer network
- -People: manage, run, program, and maintain the system
- -Procedures: strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using CBIS
Common types of information systems used
- Electronic and mobile commerce - E-commerce (any business transaction executed electronically between : B2B (companies) B2C (companies and consumers) C2C (consumer to consumer) Business and public sector and consumers and the public sector
- Transaction processing
- Management information
- Decision support
transactions conducted anywhere, anytime
Electronic business (e-business)
uses information systems and the Internet to perform all business-related tasks and functions
-Any business-related exchange
Transaction processing System (TPS)
-organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions
Enterprise Resource Planning
-Programs that manage the vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization
What is Systems Development?
The activity of creating or modifying business systems.
Steps in Systems Development
- 1. Systems Investigation (understand the problem)
- 2. Systems Analysis (understand solution)
- 3. Systems Design (select and plan best solution)
- 4. Systems Implementation (place solution into effect)
- 5. Systems Maintenance and Review (evaluate results of solution)
Definition of an organization
a formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals
What is the value chain
a series (chain) of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product of storage, oubound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service
What are the two key parts of managing the value chain?
- 1. supply chain management (SCM) which helps determine what supplies are required for the value chain, what quantities is needed to meet customer demand, how the supplies should be processed into finished goods and services, and how the shipment of supplies and products to customers should be scheduled, monitored, and controlled.
- 2. customer relationship management (CRM) programs help a company manage all aspects of customer encounters, including marketing and advertising, sales, customer service after the sales, and programs to retain loyal customers
Definition of culture
a set of major understandings and assumptions shared by a group, such as withing an ethnic group or country
Definition of Organizational Culture
major understandings and assumptions for a business, corporation, or other organization
What is Organizational change?
delas with how for-profit and nonprofit organizations plan for, implement, and handle change.
Can can be sustaining or disruptive. Define both
- Sustaining change can help a organization improve the supply of raw materials, the production process, and the products and services it offers
- Disruptive change often harms an organization's performance or even puts it out of business
Techology Acceptance Model (TAM)
specifies the factors that can lead to better attitudes about the information system, along with higher acceptance and usage of the system in the organization
definition of technology diffusion
a measure of how widely technology is spread throughout the organization
definition of technology infusion
the extent to which technology permeates an area or department
Five forces model (key factors that can lead to attainment of competitive advantage
- 1. rivalry among existing competitors
- 2. threat of new entrants
- 3. threat of substitute products and services
- 4. bargaining power of customers
- 5. bargaining power of suppliers
Strategies to attain competitve advantage
- 1. cost leadership
- 2. differentiation
- 3. niche strategy
- 4. altering the industry structure
- 5. create new products and services
- 6. improve existing product lines and services
- 7. other strategies
Three stages in the business use of information system
- 1. cost reduction and productivity (a measure of the output achieved divided by the input required)
- 2. competitive advantage
- 3. performance-based management
productivity = (output/input) * 100%
Ways to Measure IS value
- 1. Return on Investment (ROI) - this measure investigates the additional profits or benefits that are generated as a percentage of the investment
- 2. Earnings growth - the increase in profit it brings
- 3. Market Share and speed to market
- 4. Customer Awareness and satsifaction
- 5. total cost of ownership
Knowledge workers are usually professionals in science, engineering, business, and other areas True or False
A (An) ____________ consists of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures
Computer programs that govern the operation of computer systems are called?
What is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases and devices used to create, store, share, and use the organization's experience and knowledge?
KMS (KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM)
What involves creating or acquiring the various system components (hardware, software, databases, etc) defined in the design step, assembling them, and putting the new system into operation?
_____________________involves anytime, anywhere commerce that uses wireless communication
______________involves contracting with outside professional services to meet specific business needs?
_______________________change can help an organization improve raw materials supply, the production process, and the products and services offered by the organization?
Technology infusion is a measure of how widely technology is spread throughout the organization. True or False?
Who is involved in helping users determine what outputs they need and constructing the plans needed to produce these outputs?
the systems analyst
An information center provides users with assistance, training, and application development. True or False
The ____________ is typically in charge of the information systems department or area in a company?
Organizations typically make a one-time investment in the computer hardware necessary to meet their needs with little need for future changes and upgrades True or False ?
Executing an instruction by the CPU involves two phases: the instruction phase and the ___________________phase?
Which of the following components performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons?
Application software like Microsoft Excel manipulates the computer hardware directly?
Today's operating systems support ______________, the ability to run multiple processes seemingly simultaneously
Software that enables users to improve their personal effectiveness, increasing the amount work they can do and its quality is called ________________.
Personal productivity software
Optimization can be found in which type of application software?
A program to detect and eliminate viruses is an example of what type of software?
A class of application software that helps groups work together and collaborate is called _______________________.
workgroup application software
More lines of code for current applications are written in the _________________programming language than in any other language.
________________are an important source of increased revenue for software manufacturers and can provide useful new functionality and improved quality for software users.
______________________ is a relative term that generally means a telecommunication system that can exchange data very quickly.
_______________ involves the broadcast of communications in one of three frequence ranges: microware, radio, or infrared
A telecommunications service that delivers high-speed Internet access to homes and small businesses over existing phone lines is called ____________;
A(n)____________is a network that can connect technology devices within a range of 33 feet or so
personal area network
On the Internet, ___________ enables traffic to flow from one network to another.
_________________ is a company that provides people and organizations with access to the Internet.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer are examples of ___________________.
_________________ can be used to route phone calls over networks and the Internet.
Voice over IP (VoIP)
The standard page description language for Web pages is ___________________.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
A (n)___________________ is a network based on Web technology that links customers, suppliers, and others to the company.
Privacy, fraud, and security issues on the Internet have all but been eliminated through the diligent efforts of ISPs and software providers. True or False
What is content streaming?
method for transferrin multimedia files, radio broadcasts, and other content over the Internet so that the data stream of voice and pictures plays more or less continuously, without a break, or with very few of them
What is instant messging?
Describe the elements and steps involved in the telecommunication process.
- 1. the model starts with a sending unit, such as a person, a computer system, a terminal
- 2. The sending unit transmits a signal to a modem
What is a telecommunications protocol?
What is VoIP? What capabilities does it provide?
- a collection of technologies and communications protocols that enables voice converations to be converted into packets of data that can be sent over a data network such as the Internet, a WAN, or LAN.
- VoIP can be used to make a call directly from a computer equipped with appropriate software and a microphone, a special VoIP phone, or an ordinary phone connected to an analog telephone adapter than converts the analog voice signal into data packets
What is mesh networking? What are some of its advantages?
What is a metropolitan area network?
a telecommunications network that connects users and their computers in a geographical area that spans a campus or city
4 ways to connect to the internet.
- Internet is a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information.
- LAN Server - used by businesses and organziations that manage a local area network (LAN)
- Dial-Up - connecting requires a modem that allows the computer to use standard phone lines.
- Online Service -
What is an Internet Service Provider? Services they provide.
any company that provides Internet access to people and organizations
Waht is a podcast?
an audio broadcast over the Internet. The name comes from the word iPod, Apple's portable music player, and the word broadcasting.
What is the ARPANET?
- A project started by the IS Department of Defense in 1969 as both an experiment in reliable networking and a means to link DoD and military research contractors, including many universities doing military-funded research
- ARPA - Advanced Research Projects Agency
What is an intranet?
an internal corporate network built using the Internet and World Wide Web standards and products
What is an extranet?
A network that links selected resources of the intranet of a company with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners.
What is a VPN?
- virtual private network
- a secure connection between two points on the Internet
What is tunneling?
The process by which VPNs transfer information by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the internet
- 1. management issues - managed at the local level; no centralized governing body controls the Internet.
- 2. Service and speed issues - Traffic volume on company intranets is growing faster than the internet
- 3. Privacy, fraud, security, and unauthorized Internet sites -
what is a chat room?
a facility that enables two or more people to engage in interactive "conversations" over the Internet
What is a Local Area Network (LAN)
a network that connects computer systems and devices within a small area such as an office, home, or several floors in a builing
What is a Wide Area Network (WAN)
a telecommunications network that connects large geographic regions
What is a Personal Area Networks (PAN)
a wireless network that connects information technology devices within a range of 33 feet or so
- Near Field Communication (NFC) is a very short-range wireless connectivity technology designed for cell phones and credit cards
- Bluetooth - a wireless communication specification that describes how cell phones, computers, personal digital assistants that can be interconnected over distances of 10-30 feet at a rate of about 2Mbps
a wireless telecommunications technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance, which consists of about 300 technology companies including AT&T, Dell, Microsoft, Nokia and Qualcomm