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Central Nervous System (CNS)
Includes brain and spinal cords
Perheprial Nervous System (PNS)
All other nerves including all cranial and spinal cord nerves
Carries nerve impules TOWARD the CNS
AKA Motor Neuron/Nerve.
- Carrying impulses towards organs and AWAY
- from the CNS. The organs then
- respond to the impulse, usually by contracting or secreting (or not secreting).
Somatic Nervous System
- Skeletal Muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
- Usually goes to various organs and glands that respond to impulses.
Effector organs include landular secretion, organs that effect others, unlike sensory organs.
Example: muscles, glands
analysis of input and a response is determined. Integration determines what the input means and maybe unconcious. The response is the activation of an effector organ.
1. Eyes (photoreceptors)
2. Taste buds - chemoreceptors
3. Ear (sound) - specialized mechanoreceptors
4. Touch receptors - mechanoreceptors
5. Olfaction (smell) - chemoreceptors
AKA Soma or Perikaryon (of neuron)
- AKA Glial Cells
- 5 Types:
- Ependymal Cells
- Schwann Cells
Cells that occur on the exterior of neruons in the PNS and do not conduct nerve impulses, they surround the cell body with ganglia
Nerve cell bodies
Myelinated bundles of neurons (tracts or nerves)
Made by schwann cells and oligodendrites
All or none phenomenon
Once threshold is released action potential is self-generating
jumping between nodes on ranvier, depolarization of the membrane occurs only at the nodes
Types of Synapses
- Kinds of synapses:
- Axodendritic – axons to dendrites
Axosomatic – axons to cell bodies
Axoaxonic – axons to axons
Dendrodendritic –dendrites to dendrites
Dendrosomatic –dendrites to cell bodies
Types of synapses
- Electrical- large protein channels that allow charged particles to go from one cell to another (can
- go either way in some instances) called “gap junctions”
Examples of Neurotransmitters
- Acetylcholine (ACh)
- Biogenic amines including
- epinephrine, serotonin, histamine
- Amino acids
- Peptides (neuropeptides)
- substance P, endorphins,enkephalins
- Others: ATP, NO, CO
Blood from the entire digestive tract is funneled into the...
Hepatic portal vein
The abominal aorta terminates in a bifuraction in which the two branches are termed the...
common iliac arteries
Walls of arteries and viens differ largely in their...
Capillaires are the smallest kind of blood vessel. The inside diameter of capillaries are about...
Trick question! Extremely variable
The lining of all blood vessels is composed of...
Artieries usually connect to vessels called
Bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS are called...
If one wanted to find nerological nuclei (not cell nuclei), one would look ...
Among tracts of the spinal cord
Where would one look for an internuron
In the grey matter of spinal cord
Heart beats are controlled by a series of specialized cardiac muscles fibers within the mycoradium that act like nerves and stimulate the heart. These fibers are referred to as:
The conducting system
When a mycardial infarction occurs within the mycoardium, what happens?
Heart muscle dies
The respiratory membrane in the lungs is found in...
The lining of the alveoli