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What are the four curves of the adult Vertebral column?
Thoracic, Labrum, Sacral, Cervical
How do they develop?
When you are born you have 33 seperate bones. Nine of these eventually form into two composite bones (coccyx, sacrum) leaving 24 bones as individual vertebrae seperated by intervertebral discs.
Which are primary and which are secondary?
- PRIMARY: Thoracic, Sacral
- SECONDARY: Cervical, Lumbar
What are Paranasal Sinuses?
Cavities inside the skull. There not to make the skull so heavy.
Discuss and compare the three structural classes of articulations.
- FIBROUS: Connected by dense regular CT
- CARTILIGINOUS: Connected by cartilage
- SYNOVIAL: Connected by fluid-filled joint cavity
Describe the subtypes of the three structural classes and give examples of joints.
- SUTURES: Tightly bound by small amount of fibrous CT.
- EX. Bones of Skull only
- SYNDESMOSES: Connected by ligaments.
- EX. Distal ends of Tibia and Fibula.
- SYNCHONDROSIS: Connected by Hyaline cartilage.
- EX.Costal Cartilage
- SYMPHYSIS: Connected by Fibrous Cartilage.
- PLANE: Allow short, gliding movements.
- EX. Intertarsal and Intercarpal Joints.
- HINGE: Allow Angular movement in one direction.
- EX. Elbow,Ankle, Interphalangeal Joints.
- PIVOT: One bone rotates around another.
- EX. Atlas and Axis
- CONDYLOID: Allows side-to-side and back and forth movements.
- EX. Knuckles
- SADDLE: Articular surface on one bone in concave and the other bone is convex.
- EX. Ball of Thumb
- BALL-AND-SOCKET: Universal movement, Including Rotation.
- Ex. Shoulder, Hip
Which joints are diarthrotic? amphiarthrotic? synarthrotic?
- DIARTHROTIC: Mandible, Shoulder, Elbow, Radioulnar, Wrist, Intercarpal, Finger
- AMPHIRATHROTIC: Intervertebral
- SYNARTHROTIC: Skull
Describe the structure of a synovial joint.
- SYNOVIAL CAVITY: Potential space that holds a small amount of synovial fluid.
- ARTICULAR CAPSULE: Enclosed by a two-layered articular capsule, or joint capsule.
Describe the structure of skeletal muscle.
An organ composed of 4 types of tissue. A single muscle may be composed of thousands of cells. Each cell is as long as the muscle itself. CT coverings consist of Epimysium(ontop), Perimysium(around), and Endomysium(inside). Nerves travel withing in the CT coverings.
What is a neuromuscular junction?
The point at which the nerve ending and fiber meet.
Where are capillaries that supply skeletal muscle located?
on the muscle fiber
Attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction.
Moveable part or attachment of a muscle, as opposed to the muscle's origin.
Cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
Fibrous sheet connecting a muscle to the body part it moves.
A muscle surrounding an opening. Acts as a valve to close and open the orifice.
Describe the sub-microscopic structure of a skeletal muscle cell.
Consists of many myofibrils that run the entire length of cell. Each myofibril consists of 2 types of myofilaments. Thick myofilaments consist of myosin molecules. Thin myofilaments consist of 3 types of protein molecules: Actin, Tropomyosin, Troponin.
The contractile filaments in muscle cells; the two varieties are thick (myosin) filaments and thin (actin) filaments.
What is a mixed glad?
Has both Exocrine & Endocrine
What substances secreted by the pancreas have exocrine functions?
Digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate
What substances secreted by the pancreas have endocrine functions?
Insulin and Glucagon
What are gonads?
Primary reproductive organ: the testis of the male or the ovary of the female.
What substances secreted by the gonads have exocrine functions?
- Testies: Sperm
- Ovary: Oocyte
What substances secreted by the gonads have endocrine functions?
- Testies: Testosterone
- Ovary: Estrogen and Progesterone
Describe the adernal gland.
2 entirely separate endocrine glands, both of which help us deal with stress
A major organ of the smpathetic nervous system.
Produces only steroid hormones.
Steroid hormones secreted by the adernal cortex.
Steroid hormones that increase the resorption of sodium and water by the kidneys.
Hormones that increase the concetration of gluclose in the blood and aid the body in resisting long-term stress.
Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
Hormones secreted- many are tropic hormones that stimulate other endocrine cells to secrete their own hormones.
Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
Hormones are produced by hypothalamus and stored and eventually released by the posterior pituitary.
Why is the posterior piruitary not a true endocrine gland?
Because it does not produce it's own hormones.
Explain the relationship between the pituitary and the hypothalamus of the brain.
Hypothalamus acts as master endocrine gland in relation to many hormones by controlling the pituitary gland.
What is the hypophyseal portal system?
Circulatory system from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary.
What is the hypothalmaic-hypophyseal tract?
Neurons with cell bodies in hypothalamus.
A group of similar cells working together to perform a particular function is a?
The section (cut) that divides the body into left and right parts is called?
Posterior means the same as:
The cell which produces collagen fibers is the?
The epithelial membrane that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity is the:
The dense fibrous connective tissue membrane which surrounds bone is called the:
The cells which produce new bone are:
The blood vessels that supply the skin with nutrients and oxygen are located in the
Adhesions are made of:
A type of muscle which will not normally contract unless it is stimulated by the central nervous system is?
Blood vessels can be found in which of the following tissues?
All if the following are extracellular fluids EXCEPT:
A very active cell, such as a skeletal muscle cell, would have large numbers of:
The peritoneum is an example of a
The hypodermis can also be called:
The stratum of the epidermis in which cell division occurs is:
Which of the following tissues would have the lowest rate of metabolism:
Vitamin D can be made by the
The abdominopelvic cavity is part of the:
Ventral Body Cavity
When a person's skin darkens from the exposure to the sun, it is because of an increase in:
Microvilli on the surface of some epithelial cells are there for the purpose of
Increasing the surface are of the cell
A directional term which means toward the midline of the body and away from the sides is:
The most common type of cartilage found in the human body is
Keratinocytes are found in
When skeletal muscle like the biceps contract...
The cells in the muscle take turns contracting
The bone which forms the outer surfaces of all bones is..
Compact or dense bone
The prefix "sacro" means:
Receptors in the membranes of cells are
The word "fiber" can be used to mean
The entire skeletal muscle cell
The tissue which stores calcium and releases it to the blood when the blood level of calcium starts to drop is..
Longitudinal growth in long bones like the femur stops when..
Epiphysis and diaphysis fuse and are no longer seperated by hyaline cartilage
Which of the following tissues would you expect to find lining a body cavity that is the subject to much wear and tear?
Stratified squamous epithelium
The cell which is formed as a result of the union of the egg and sperm is called the..
The substance which makes the skin waterproof is..
The four basic tissues of the body are..
Muscle, Nervous, Connective Tissue, and Epithelial
The abdominal quadrant located just under the diaphram on the right side of the body is called...
Right Upper Quadrant RUQ
The epidermis seperates from the dermis and a blister is formed when the_______ is disrupted.
The two general tissue types found in an epithelial membrane are....
Epithelium & Connective Tissue
A multipolar neuron has on extension(process) called the __________ and many extensions (processes) called the _________.
When the body is in anatomical position, the palms of the hand are facing...
The central nervous system consists of the ________ and _________.
Explain two ways that the skin helps to control body temperature.
- Sweating to cool the body down
- By the # of capalaties are open
A human egg cell contains
Half the number of chromosomes as are found in all the other cells of the body
What are the functions of the urinary system?
- Remove waste from blood
- Regulates electrolyte balance in body fluids
- Regulation of blood volume
- Regulation of erythrocyte production
What is a nephron?
Functional unit of the kidney
Difference between the juxtamedullary and cortical nephrons.
- Juxtamedullary: have loops of Henel that deeply invade the medulla and thin segments that are much longer. (15%)
- Cortical: short loops of Henel (85%)
Describe the filtiration membrane.
The actual filter that lies between the blood in glomerulus and the capsular space, consists of 3 layers.
A major division of the uriniferous tubule in the kidney.
Passage of a solution or suspension through a membrane or filter, with the purpose of holding back the larger particles.
The passage of material formed by a cell to its exterior
What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
A structure that functions in the regulation of blood pressure, is an area of specialized contact between the terminal end of the ascending limb of the loop of Henel and the afferent arteriole.
Describe in general terms the anatomy of the urinary bladder.
A collapsible, muscular sac that stores and expels urine, lies inferior to ther peritoneal cavity on the pelvic floor, just posterior to the pubic symphysis.
Compare the internal and external urethal sphincter.
- Internal- surrounds urethral opening
- External-located where urethra passes through body wall
Compare the structures of the male and female urethras.
- 20cm long (8inch)
- Prostatic urethra
- Membranous urethra
- Spongy urethra
- 3-4 cm (1.5inch)
- opens to the outside at the external urethral orifice
What are the functions of the lymphatic system?
Constanly monitors blood and responds to antigens. the immune response helps to balance fluid levels between blood vessels and interstitial spaces. Transports lipids and lipid soluble vitamins from gastointestional tract to blood stream assists in the replication and maturation of lymphocytes.
What is lymph?
excess interstitial fluid and solutes that have escaped from the blood
What are gonads?
- Primary organ of reproduction
- Male- Testes
- Female- Ovaries
What are the gametes?
- sex cells
- male- sperm
- female- egg
What is semen?
Sperm plus the secretions of the accessory glands and accessory ducts.
What is the spermatic cord and what structures does it contain?
cord which suspends the testes in the scrotum- composed of arteries, veins, lymphatics, nerves, and ductus deferens.
Follow the pathway of the oocyte from the time it leaves the ovary until it arrives in the uterus.
The oocyte travels down the uterine tube. The follicle left behind becomes the corpus luteum, which secrets progesterone and estrogen to stimulate build up of uterine endometrium. If fertilization occurs, zygote continues traveling down the uterine tube, dividing to produce mass of cells. Eventually it will lodge in the endometrial lining. If the oocyte is not fertilized within about 10-13, the corpus luteum beings to atrophy, leaving only a small bit of scar tissue called the corpus albicans. Eventually it, too, will vanish. The uterine lining is sloughed off.
Name and describe the layers of the uterine wall.
The wall of the uterus is composed of three basic layers, an outer (perimetrium), a middle (myometrium), and an inner (endometrium)
Discuss the changes in the endometrium related to pregnancy and menstruation.
- If fertilization occurs, the embryo burrows into the endometrium and resides there for the rest of its development.
- If fertilization does not occur it sheds one of its two layers, the inner stratum layer. The other layer, stratum basalis, does not shed and is responsible for forming a new functional layer after menstruation ends.
What is the cervix?
The inferior, necklike part of the uterus.
What is the corpus luteum and what does it secrete?
an endocrine gland that persists through the seconf half of each ovarian cycle. It secretes estrogens and another hormone called progesterone.
What is the corpus albicans?
the scar tissue from the corpus luteum.
Describe the structure of a neuron.
- Cell body (soma)
- Cell process (fibers)
- Dendrites (afferent process)
- axon (efferent process)
- Telodendria (axon terminals)
- Synaptic bulbs (go by many other names)