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Any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience.
Involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment.
Irrational fears of specific objects or situations
- A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
- - sometimes called Pavlovian Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
a previous neutral stimulus that has through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
A trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli.
The Gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
Is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
in which a conditioned stimulus fuctions as if it were on unconditioned stimulus.
A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
Occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response.
A skinner box
- "Operant Chamber"
- - a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.
Are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers.
Creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in the skinner box as a function of time.
The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response.
Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated.
Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (Reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response.
- Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs.
- - Human primary Reinforcers: Ex: Food, Water, Warmth, Sex
Secondary or Conditioned Reinforcers
Events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers.
Schedule of Reinforcement
A specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers overtime.
- Occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced.
- - used to shape and establish a new response before moving on to more realistic schedules.
Occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time.
Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule
- The reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses.
- Ex: a salesperson receives a bonus for every fourth set of golf clubs sold.
Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule
- The reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses.
- Ex: slot machine in a casino pays off once every six times on the average. The # of non-winning responses between pay offs varies greatly from one time to the next.
Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule
- The reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.
- Ex: Students can earn grades by taking exams every 3 weeks.
- The reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. The interval length varies around a predetermined average.
- Ex: a person repeatedly dials a busy phone number (Getting through is the reinforcer)
- Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus.
- Ex: Good Grades
Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
An organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
- An organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occuring.
- Ex: Warning light
Occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response.
Learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs.
Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models.
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