file.Psychch6txt

Card Set Information

Author:
keslater
ID:
73
Filename:
file.Psychch6txt
Updated:
2009-10-06 22:24:36
Tags:
Psychology
Folders:

Description:
Chapter 6
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user keslater on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Learning
    Any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience.
  2. Conditioning
    Involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment.
  3. Phobias
    Irrational fears of specific objects or situations
  4. Classical Conditioning
    • A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
    • - sometimes called Pavlovian Conditioning
  5. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    Stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
  6. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
  7. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    a previous neutral stimulus that has through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
  8. Conditioned Response (CR)
    Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
  9. Trial
    A trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli.
  10. Extinction
    The Gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.
  11. Spontaneous Recovery
    Is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
  12. Stimulus Generalization
    Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
  13. Stimulus Discrimination
    Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
  14. Higher-Order Conditioning
    in which a conditioned stimulus fuctions as if it were on unconditioned stimulus.
  15. Operant Conditioning
    A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
  16. Reinforcement
    Occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response.
  17. A skinner box
    • "Operant Chamber"
    • - a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.
  18. Reinforcement Contingencies
    Are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers.
  19. Cumulative Recorder
    Creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in the skinner box as a function of time.
  20. Shaping
    The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response.
  21. Resistance
    Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated.
  22. Discriminative Stimuli
    Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (Reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response.
  23. Primary Reinforcers
    • Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs.
    • - Human primary Reinforcers: Ex: Food, Water, Warmth, Sex
  24. Secondary or Conditioned Reinforcers
    Events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers.
  25. Schedule of Reinforcement
    A specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers overtime.
  26. Continuous Reinforcement
    • Occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced.
    • - used to shape and establish a new response before moving on to more realistic schedules.
  27. Intermittent Reinforcement
    Occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time.
  28. Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule
    • The reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses.
    • Ex: a salesperson receives a bonus for every fourth set of golf clubs sold.
  29. Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule
    • The reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses.
    • Ex: slot machine in a casino pays off once every six times on the average. The # of non-winning responses between pay offs varies greatly from one time to the next.
  30. Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule
    • The reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.
    • Ex: Students can earn grades by taking exams every 3 weeks.
  31. Variable-Interval Schedule
    • The reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. The interval length varies around a predetermined average.
    • Ex: a person repeatedly dials a busy phone number (Getting through is the reinforcer)
  32. Positive Reinforcement
    • Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus.
    • Ex: Good Grades
  33. Negative Reinforcement
    Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
  34. Escape Learning
    An organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
  35. Avoidance Learning
    • An organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occuring.
    • Ex: Warning light
  36. Punishment
    Occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response.
  37. Latent Learning
    Learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs.
  38. Observational Learning
    Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview