Cold War Terms

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Cold War Terms
2011-03-15 00:45:50

Cold War
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  1. Big Three
    allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt
  2. Teheran Conference 1943
    • Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet
    • Union in 1943; agreed to the opening of a new front in France.
  3. Bretton Woods Conference 1944
    • The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference
    • held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to
    • create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase
    • investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of
    • Europe.
  4. Baruch Plan
    • In 1946, Bernard Baruch presented an American plan to control and
    • eventually outlaw nuclear weapons. The plan called for United Nations
    • control of nuclear weapons in three stages before the United States gave
    • up its stockpile. Soviet insistence on immediate nuclear disarmament
    • without inspection doomed the Baruch Plan and led to a nuclear arms race
    • between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  5. World Bank
    • A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries
    • for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its
    • formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and
    • Development.
  6. IMF: International Monetary Fund
    United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
  7. Yalta Conference 1945
    • Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan
    • after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised
    • the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost
    • in the Russo-Japanese War
  8. Cold War
  9. Potsdam Conference 1945
    Conference where Truman, Atlee and Stalin complete post-war agreements. Trinity test is successful during this time
  10. Iron Curtain
    • Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide
    • in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations.
  11. George F. Kennan
    American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
  12. Containment
    American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
  13. Marshall Plan
    • Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947 proposed massive and
    • systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European
    • economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
    Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; Soviet dominated group that provided resources to Soviet bloc countries; ends in 1991
  15. National Security Act 1947
    • Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union
    • after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central
    • Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
  16. Truman Doctrine
    • First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to
    • provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide
    • U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
  17. Berlin Blockade
    • Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain
    • supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to
    • the Berlin Airlift.
  18. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one
    • another if they were attacked by any other country: the US, England,
    • France, Canada, and several Western European countries.
  19. Warsaw Pact
    • treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European
    • countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria,
    • Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
  20. NSC-68
    • a secret policy statement proposed by the National Security Council that
    • called for a large, ongoing military commitment to contain Soviet
    • Communism. It was accepted by Truman after the N Korean invasion of S
    • Korea
  21. HUAC: House Un-American Activities Committee
    investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda
  22. Klaus Fuchs
    British physicist who was born in Germany and fled Nazi persecution
  23. Executive Order 9835
    required investigations of every federal employee
  24. Red-Lining
    • the red line would be the areas where banks wouldn not invest usually to
    • descrimante against black ppl the houses in the black neighbor hoods
    • cost more than the houses in the white neighbor hoods
  25. Hollywood Ten
    • Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to
    • answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in
    • Hollywood
  26. Alger Hiss
    • U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the
    • United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and
    • convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
  27. Whittaker Chambers
    • Editor of TIME mag. Knew peeps jn govt, said he was an ex-communist,
    • reformed. He said he knew an employee in the state dep who was an active
    • communist: Alger Hiss
  28. Senator Joseph McCarthy
    • Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't,
    • but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII
    • to become incredibly influential
  29. Red-Baiting
    Accusing someone or a group that they are communist/socialist/or more left than they appear
  30. Red Chanels
    • people in entertainment who had strange relations that would be
    • suspicious as relations with communists.
  31. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
    American communists. They were executed for passing nuclear weapons secrets to the USSR.
  32. McCarran International Security Act
    • Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the
    • government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism.
    • Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
  33. McCarthyism
    Was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists.
  34. Communist Control Act 1954
    • denying legal rights to the Communist party, A federal law enacted in
    • 1954 which declared the Communist party to be part of a conspiracy to
    • overthrow the government.
  35. Senator Robert Taft
    • Commonly known as "Mr. Republican," he led the Republican party to
    • reduce the size and the power of the federal government, to decrease
    • taxes, to block Truman's liberal goals.
  36. CIA: Central Intelligence Agency
    • ndependent agency of the United States government responsible for
    • collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence
    • activities abroad in the national interest
  37. Serviceman's Readjustment Act [G.I. Bill] 1944
    • Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens
    • as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for
    • loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.
  38. Fair Deal
    • An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that
    • called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only
    • to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to
    • opposition in congress.
  39. The buck stops here!
    i am the ultimutly responsible person in this orginization. President Hery S. Truman had a sign on his desk that said this
  40. Taft-Hartley Act 1947
    • In 1947, the Act shut down all closed shops, enabled "right to work"
    • laws, shut down union shops, and increased regulations on unions.
  41. Dixiecrats
    Southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
  42. Governor Strom Thurmond
    Dixiecrat candidate for President in 1948. He believed strongly in segregation.
  43. National Housing Act of 1949
    This act provided for the construction of 810,000 units of low-income housing accompanied by long-term rent subsidies.
  44. Film Noir
    • "black film," film noir refers to a style or mode of filmmaking, which
    • flourished between 1941 and 1958, that presents narratives involving
    • crime or criminal actions in a manner that disturbs, disorients, or
    • otherwise induces anxiety in the viewer
  45. Syngman Rhee
    Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
  46. Inchon Landing 1950
    • The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy
    • lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops
  47. 38th Parallel
    Latitudinal line that divides North and South Korea at approximatly the midpoint of the peninsula.
  48. Old soldiers never die; they just fade, fade, fade away.
  49. Baby Boom
    An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
  50. Keynsian Economics
    • Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that
    • government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed
    • during booms.
  51. Postwar Contract
  52. Dr. Jonas Salk
    developer of a vaccine to prevent polio
  53. DDT
    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. an insecticide that is also toxic to animals and humans
  54. UNIVAC
    • successor to ENIAC; "Universal Automatic Computer"; handled business
    • data; LAUNCHED THE COMP REVOLUTION; allowed Americans to work more
    • efficiently
  55. Duck-and-Cover
    • Schoolchildren practiced crawling under their desks and putting their
    • hands over their heads to protect themselves from an atomic bomb attack.
  56. Sputnik I
    • First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and
    • sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It
    • led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
  57. Explorer I
    1st U.S. satellite launched into space; Nov., 1958
  58. NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    • Founded in 1958 to compete with Russia's space program. It gained
    • prestige and power with Kennedy's charge to reach the moon by the end of
    • the 1960s.
  59. Levittown, LI
    The town was first settled around 1816. The Town of Birdsall was created in 1829 from parts of the Towns of Almond and Allen.
  60. Dr. Benjamin Spock
    • Was a 1950's doctor who told the whole baby boom generation how to raise
    • their kids. He also said that raising them was more important and
    • rewarding than extra $ would be.
  61. Sunbelt
    United States pediatrician whose many books on child care influenced the upbringing of children around the world
  62. Rustbelt
    urban areas in New England and Middle West characterized by concentrations of declining industries (steel or textiles)
  63. The American Dream
    • the idea (often associated with the Protestant work ethic) held by many
    • in the United States of America that through hard work, courage and
    • determination one could achieve prosperity.
  64. A vast wasteland!
  65. National Defense Education Act 1958
    • Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an oppurtunity and stimulus
    • for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for
    • upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services,
    • and teaching innovation.
  66. William H. Whyte
    author of the organization man; wrote about the affects of society on indivisual behavior
  67. The Organization Man
    • attacked the way businesses wanted every employee to be just like the
    • others to keep any individual from dominating or being a threat
  68. The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit
    Sloan Wilson against consumerism
  69. David Riesman
    • Wrote
    • "The Lonely Crowd", a sociological study of modern conformity, which
    • postulates the existence of the "inner-directed" and "other-directed"
    • personalities. Riesman argues that the character of post WWII American
    • society impels individuals to "other-directedness", the preeminent
    • example being modern suburbia, where individuals seek their neighbors'
    • approval and fear being outcast from their community.