Cold War Terms
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Cold War Terms
allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt
Teheran Conference 1943
Meeting among leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet
Union in 1943; agreed to the opening of a new front in France.
Bretton Woods Conference 1944
The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference
held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to
create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase
investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of
In 1946, Bernard Baruch presented an American plan to control and
eventually outlaw nuclear weapons. The plan called for United Nations
control of nuclear weapons in three stages before the United States gave
up its stockpile. Soviet insistence on immediate nuclear disarmament
without inspection doomed the Baruch Plan and led to a nuclear arms race
between the United States and the Soviet Union.
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries
for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its
formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and
IMF: International Monetary Fund
United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
Yalta Conference 1945
Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan
after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised
the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost
in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference 1945
Conference where Truman, Atlee and Stalin complete post-war agreements. Trinity test is successful during this time
Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide
in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations.
George F. Kennan
American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947 proposed massive and
systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European
economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; Soviet dominated group that provided resources to Soviet bloc countries; ends in 1991
National Security Act 1947
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union
after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to
provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide
U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain
supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to
the Berlin Airlift.
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one
another if they were attacked by any other country
: the US, England,
France, Canada, and several Western European countries.
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European
countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
a secret policy statement proposed by the National Security Council that
called for a large, ongoing military commitment to contain Soviet
Communism. It was accepted by Truman after the N Korean invasion of S
HUAC: House Un-American Activities Committee
investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda
British physicist who was born in Germany and fled Nazi persecution
Executive Order 9835
required investigations of every federal employee
the red line would be the areas where banks wouldn not invest usually to
descrimante against black ppl the houses in the black neighbor hoods
cost more than the houses in the white neighbor hoods
Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to
answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in
U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the
United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and
convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
Editor of TIME mag. Knew peeps jn govt, said he was an ex-communist,
reformed. He said he knew an employee in the state dep who was an active
: Alger Hiss
Senator Joseph McCarthy
Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't,
but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII
to become incredibly influential
Accusing someone or a group that they are communist/socialist/or more left than they appear
3 FBI AGENTS PUBLISHED THIS LISTING NAMES OF WRITERS, DIRECTORS, AND
PERFORMERS WHO CLAIMED TO BE MEMBERS OF SUBVERSIVE GROUPS, List of
people in entertainment who had strange relations that would be
suspicious as relations with communists.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
American communists. They were executed for passing nuclear weapons secrets to the USSR.
McCarran International Security Act
Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the
government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism.
Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
Was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists.
Communist Control Act 1954
denying legal rights to the Communist party, A federal law enacted in
1954 which declared the Communist party to be part of a conspiracy to
overthrow the government.
Senator Robert Taft
Commonly known as "Mr. Republican," he led the Republican party to
reduce the size and the power of the federal government, to decrease
taxes, to block Truman's liberal goals.
CIA: Central Intelligence Agency
ndependent agency of the United States government responsible for
collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence
activities abroad in the national interest
Serviceman's Readjustment Act [G.I. Bill] 1944
Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens
as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for
loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that
called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only
to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to
opposition in congress.
The buck stops here!
i am the ultimutly responsible person in this orginization. President Hery S. Truman had a sign on his desk that said this
Taft-Hartley Act 1947
In 1947, the Act shut down all closed shops, enabled "right to work"
laws, shut down union shops, and increased regulations on unions.
Southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
Governor Strom Thurmond
Dixiecrat candidate for President in 1948. He believed strongly in segregation.
National Housing Act of 1949
This act provided for the construction of 810,000 units of low-income housing accompanied by long-term rent subsidies.
"black film," film noir refers to a style or mode of filmmaking, which
flourished between 1941 and 1958, that presents narratives involving
crime or criminal actions in a manner that disturbs, disorients, or
otherwise induces anxiety in the viewer
Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
Inchon Landing 1950
The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy
lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops
Latitudinal line that divides North and South Korea at approximatly the midpoint of the peninsula.
Old soldiers never die; they just fade, fade, fade away.
An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that
government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed
Dr. Jonas Salk
developer of a vaccine to prevent polio
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. an insecticide that is also toxic to animals and humans
successor to ENIAC; "Universal Automatic Computer"; handled business
data; LAUNCHED THE COMP REVOLUTION; allowed Americans to work more
Schoolchildren practiced crawling under their desks and putting their
hands over their heads to protect themselves from an atomic bomb attack.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and
sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It
led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
1st U.S. satellite launched into space; Nov., 1958
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Founded in 1958 to compete with Russia's space program. It gained
prestige and power with Kennedy's charge to reach the moon by the end of
The town was first settled around 1816. The Town of Birdsall was created in 1829 from parts of the Towns of Almond and Allen.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Was a 1950's doctor who told the whole baby boom generation how to raise
their kids. He also said that raising them was more important and
rewarding than extra $ would be.
United States pediatrician whose many books on child care influenced the upbringing of children around the world
urban areas in New England and Middle West characterized by concentrations of declining industries (steel or textiles)
The American Dream
the idea (often associated with the Protestant work ethic) held by many
in the United States of America that through hard work, courage and
determination one could achieve prosperity.
A vast wasteland!
National Defense Education Act 1958
Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an oppurtunity and stimulus
for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for
upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services,
and teaching innovation.
William H. Whyte
author of the organization man; wrote about the affects of society on indivisual behavior
The Organization Man
attacked the way businesses wanted every employee to be just like the
others to keep any individual from dominating or being a threat
The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit
Sloan Wilson against consumerism
"The Lonely Crowd", a sociological study of modern conformity, which
postulates the existence of the "inner-directed" and "other-directed"
personalities. Riesman argues that the character of post WWII American
society impels individuals to "other-directedness", the preeminent
example being modern suburbia, where individuals seek their neighbors'
approval and fear being outcast from their community.