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describe the life of a medieval woman
- peasant womanworked hard all day and looked after own children
- noblewomenwere more educated and had more leisure time
- spent a lot of time in worship
- had others to care for children
for what 3 reasons did a Medieval Knight fight?
- feudal lord
- heavenly lord
- his chosen lady
what was the most important achievement of Pope Gregory I?
He broadened the authority of papacy into the secular world and established Christendom.
How were feuadlism and the manor system related?
The lord usually was near the top of the feudal systme, who also is at the top of manor system and who provide fief to vassals.
What is the Concordat of Worms and what did it do?
The church alone can appoint the bishop, but the emperor could veto the appointment.
What were the forces holding the feudal society together?
Social classes and religion
What factors caused the Vikings raids to eventually stop?
gradually accepted Christianity
warming trend in Europe's climate made farming easier
viking and europe alliances
What is Gelasius's two-swprds theory?
God created 2 swords; pope-spiritual sword, emperor- pollitcal swords. If each kept authority in his own realm, the leaders could share power.
How did Europead invasions help lead to the establishment of feudalism?
Invasions caused disorder and suffering that left Europeans in constant danger. Kings couldn't defend lands and people started looking to local leaders with armies for protection.
for what was the medieval castle built?
home to the lord, lady, their family, knights, and servants
For what achievement is Charlemagne most remembered?
Building an empire greater than any known since Rome
Why was the interdict an effective weapon for a pope to use against a king?
What obligations did a lord have to his peasants?
He provided them with housing, farmland, and protection frim bandits
what are the general characteristics of the Germanic tribes?
were held together by fmaily ties and loyalty
governed by unwrittened rules and traditions
warriors pledged loyalty
what is the bargain made between a lord and a vassal?
the exchange of military protection and other services with land to the vasal
Over what issue did Pope Gregory VII and the German emperor Henry IV fight?
they disagreed over who had power to annoint Church officials
Why did learning decline during the last years of the Roman empire?
The Germanic tribe disrupted the language.
Why was the Church so important during an era of constant warfare and politcal turmoil?
It was a stable force
Why did he bishops decide to side with Pope Gregory VII after Henry IV was excommunicated?
They decided with whoever had the most power
What are the roots of medieval culture in Western Europe?
- Classical heritage of Rome
- beliefs of Roman Catholic Church
- customs of various Germanic tribes
What was the chief goal of the Crusades?
The pope wanted to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christianity.
What functions did the craft guilds perform?
they trained people in skilled jobs and regulated the wuality of the goods sold.
what was the name of the legislative body of medieval England?
who was the most responsible for the spread of the bubonic plague in Europe?
what was the most important effect of the Hundred Years' War?
the church divided
How was the Great Schism finally solved?
The Council of Constance forced all 3 popes to resign and throwned Marvin V.
What did the Magna Carta guarantee?
Protection of nobles' rights and limited the King's power
In what kind of language did Dnate Alighiri and Geoffrey Chaucer write?
How did the Battle of Hastings change the course of English history.
King William unified the control of England and laid the foundation for centralized governed,
What are the characteristics of Gothic architecture?
- ribbed vaults
- pointed arches
- flying buttresses
- tall spires
What was the central issue of the Hundred Years' War?
fight for thrown in France and England
What neg. effect of the Crusades continued to the present?
they couldn't win over Jerusalem
what was the agreement between Richard the Lion-Hearted and Saladin the Great.
Saladin the Great keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter
What problems were identified by Church reformers during the Middle Ages?
The priests were nearly illiterate
the popes had questionable morals
bishops and abbots cared more about their position as feudal lord.
When were Europeans able to begin studying ancient Greek works?
When Jewish scholars translated Arabic versions of Greek into Latin.
What was the effect of the 3-field system?
2/3 of the planting field was planted and the other 1/3 rested. It allowed more food to be produced and leads to pop increase
what were the effects of the Commercial Revolution?
- expanded business and trade
- trade routes open to Asia, North Africa and Byzantine port
What did the decisions of the English royal courts of justice create?
it formed the English common law which unifies the body of law.
what were the effects of the Crusades?
Constantinople was looted
During the Middle Ages, where were most serfs likely to find freedom?
after the Bubonic Plague
why did more common people began to read literature during the Renassaince?
the printing press was invented and made making books cheaper and faster.
what roles were women expected to perform during the Reformation?
- -not seek fame
- -inspire, but not create art
- -know classics and be charming
- -little inflluence in politics
what did william Shakespeare use many of his works to examine?
What was John Calvin's major teaching?
What institutionwas Northern Humanists (Christian Humanists) critical of?