exam3.txt

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exam3.txt
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bio 167 exam 3
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  1. What does the pectoral girdle include?
    Clavicle & scapula
  2. Anteriorly the medial end of each clavicle meets the?
    Sternum
  3. The distal end of each clavicle meets the ________ laterally
    scapulae
  4. Each clavicle is cone shaped at it medial Sternal end which attaches to the
    Sternal manubrium
  5. Each clavicle is flattened at its lateral Acromial end which articulates with the
    scapulae
  6. Scapulae is the?
    Shoulder blade
  7. Describe the superior border of the scapula
    is the shortest, sharpest boarder
  8. Describe the medial or vertebral border of the scapula
    parallels the vertebral column
  9. Describe the lateral or Axillary border of the scapula
    abuts the armpit and ends superiorly in a small shallow Fossa, the glenoid cavity
  10. Pertaining to the scapula: The superior scapular angle border meets the medial border at the
    superior angle
  11. Pertaining to the scapula: The lateral border meets at the
    lateral angle.
  12. Pertaining to the scapula: The medial and lateral boarders join at the
    inferior angle.
  13. The glenoid cavity fits what?
    Head of humerus
  14. The anterior or costal surface of the scapula is concave and relatively featureless. On the posterior surface there a prominent _________that is felt easily thought the skin.
    • spine
    • On the posterior surface of the scapula there is a spine that end laterally in an enlarged roughened triangular projection called the
    • Acromion
  15. The acromion articulates with the Acromial end of the
    Clavicle
  16. Projecting Anteriorly from the superior scapular border is the
    Coracoids process �little finger bent�
  17. The coracoid process helps anchor the biceps muscle of the arm. It is bounded by the ________medially and by the glenoid cavity laterally.
    Suprascapular notch
  18. The_____________and __________ fossae are inferior and superior respectively to the spine.
    infraspinous and supraspinous
  19. The __________is the shallow concavity formed by the entire anterior scapular surface.
    subscapular fossa
  20. Infraglenoid tubercle is located where?
    Bottom of the glenoid cavity
  21. Supraglenoid tubercle is located where?
    Top of the glenoid cavity
  22. The______, the sole bone of the arm, is a typical long bone. The largest, longest bone of the upper limb, it articulates with the scapula at the shoulder and with the radius and ulna at the elbow.
    Humerus
  23. A the proximal end of the humerus is its smooth, hemispherical ________, which fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula in a manner that allows the arm to hang freely at ones side.
    Head
  24. Immediately Anteriorly inferior to the head is a slight constriction called the
    Anatomical neck
  25. Just inferior to the anatomical neck on the lateral side is the
    Greater tubercle
  26. Just inferior to the anatomical neck medially is the
    • lesser tubercle.
    • The greater tubercle and the lesser tubercle are separated by the
    • Intertubercular Sulcus or bicipital grove
  27. Just distal to the tubercles is the
    Surgical neck
  28. About midway down the shaft on its lateral side is the
    Deltoid tuberosity
  29. Nearby the deltoid tuberosity is the _________ which runs obliquely down the posterior aspect of the shaft, marking the course of the radial nerve.
    Radial grove
  30. At the distal end of the humerus are two condyles. A medial ______, which looks like an hourglass on its side, and the lateral ball-like _______.
    • Trochlea
    • capitulum
  31. The trochlea articulates with the
    Ulna
  32. The capitulum articulates with the
    Radius
  33. Both of the epicondyles (trochlea and capitulum) are flanked by the
    Medial and lateral epicondyles
  34. The ulnar nerve which runs behind the _________ is responsible for the tingling sensation you experience when you hit your �funny bone�
    Medial epicondyle
  35. Superior to the trochlea on the anterior surface is the___________, and on the posterior surface is the_______.
    • Coronoid fossa
    • Olecranon fossa
  36. A small________, lateral to the coronoid fossa receives the head of the radius when the elbow is flexed.
    radial fossa
  37. The proximal ends of the ulna and radius articulate with the
    Humerus
  38. The distal end of the ulna and radius articulate with the
    Wrist
  39. The radius and ulna are connected along their entire length by
    Interosseus membrane
  40. In the anatomical position, the radius lies_________ and the ulna __________.
    • laterally (the thumb side)
    • medially (pinky side)
  41. The ulna has two prominent processes
    Olecranon (elbow) and coronoid process
  42. The olecranone and the coronoid processes are separated by a deep concavity, the _____.
    Trochlear notch
  43. On the lateral side of the coronoid process is a small depression, the _________, where the ulna articulates with the head of the radius.
    Radial notch
  44. Distally he ulnar shaft narrows and ends in a knoblike
    Head
  45. Medial to the ulnar head is the _______, from which a ligament runs to the wrist.
    Styloid process
  46. The radius is thin at its proximal end and wide distally, the opposite of the ulna. The ______of the radius is shaped somewhat like the head of a nail. The superior surface of it is concave and articulates with the capitulum of the humerus.
    Head
  47. Medially, the head articulates with the ______of the ulna.
    radial notch
  48. Just inferior to the head of the radius and the radius neck is the
    Radial tuberosity
  49. Distally, where the radius is expanded it has a medial
    Ulnar notch
  50. The ulnar notch articulates with the ulna and a lateral
    Styloid process
  51. The skeleton of the had includes the bones of the
    • Carpus (wrist)
    • Metacarpus (palm)
    • Phalanges (bones of fingers)
  52. The carpus consist of eight marble sized short bones or ____closely united by ligaments
    Carpals
  53. The carpals are arranged in two irregular rows of four bones each. In the proximal row (lateral to medial) are the:
    • Scaphoid (boat shaped)
    • Lunate (moon like)
    • Triquetrium (triangular)
    • Pisiform (pea shaped)
  54. Only the _____ and ____ articulate with the radius to form the wrist joint
    Schapoid and lunate
  55. The carpals of the distal row (lateral to medial) are the:
    • Trapezium (little table)
    • Trapezoid (four sided)
    • Capitates (head-shaped)
    • Hamate (hooked)
  56. Metacarpus is the
    Palm
  57. How many metacarpals?
    5
  58. How are the metacarpals numbered?
    1-5 from thumb to pinky
  59. The bases of the metacarpals articulate with the ________ proximally and each other medially and laterally. Their bulbous heads articulate with the proximal _______of the fingers.
    • Carpals
    • Phalanges
  60. The fingers of digits of the upper thumb are numbered 1 to 5 beginning with the thumb or pollex. In most people the third finger is the longest. Each finger has three phalanges:
    • Distal, middle and proximal
    • The thumb does not have which phalanx?
    • Middle
  61. How many bones in phalanges?
    14
  62. The _______ attached to the lower limbs to the axial skeleton, transmits the full weight of the upper body to the lower limbs and supports the visceral organs of the pelvis.
    Pelvic girdle
  63. The pelvic girdle is formed by a pair of hip bones called an
    Os coxae or Coxal bone
  64. The point of fusion of the ilium, ischium and the pubis is a deep hemispherical socket called the
    Acetabulum
  65. The ________ receives the head of the femur or the thigh bone, at this hip joint.
    Acetabulum
  66. The _____ is a large flaring bone that forms the superior region of the coxal bone.
    Ilium
  67. The _____ is where you rest your hands on your hips.
    Iliac crest
  68. Each iliac crest ends anterior in a blunt
    anterior superior iliac spine.
  69. Each iliac crest ends posteriorly in a sharp
    posterior superior iliac spine
  70. Inferior to the anterior superior iliac spine is the
    Anterior inferior iliac spine
  71. Inferior to the posterior superior iliac spine is the
    Posterior inferior iliac spine
  72. Just inferior to the posterior inferior iliac spine, the ilium indents deeply to form the
    Greater sciatic notch
  73. The medial surface of the ilium exhibits a concavity called the
    • Iliac fossa
    • Posterior to iliac fossa is the roughened
    • Articular surface �ear shaped�
  74. The _______forms the posteroinferior part of the hip bone.
    Ischium
  75. Roughly L or arc-shaped it has a thicker superior body adjoining the ilium and a thinner inferior
    Ischial ramus
  76. The ischial ramus joins the ______ anteriorly.
    Pubis
  77. The ______ projects medially into the pelvic cavity
    Ischial spine
  78. Just inferior to the ischial spine is the
    Lesser sciatic notch
  79. The inferior surface of the ischial body is rough and grossly thickened as the
    Ischial tuberosity
  80. The _____ forms the anterior portion of the hip bone.
    Pubis
  81. Escentiallly the pubis is V shaped with __________and ___________ issuing from its flattened medial body.
    Superior and inferior rami
  82. The anterior border of the pubis is thickened to form the
    Pubic crest
  83. The large opening in the hip bone is the
    Obturator foramen
  84. The bodies of the two pubic bones are joined by a fibrocatilage disc, forming the midline_______.
    Pubic symphasis.
  85. The _____ is the single bone of the thigh, it is the largest, longest and strongest bone in the body.
    Femur
  86. The ball like ____ of the femur has a small central pit called the ______.
    • Head
    • Fovea capitus
  87. The head of the femur is carried on a _______ that angles laterally to join the shaft.
    Neck
  88. At the junction of the shaft and neck are lateral ____________ and posteromedial ________.
    • Greater trochanter
    • Lesser trochanter
  89. The two trochaners are connected by the _______________Anteriorly and by the prominent _______posteriorly.
    • Intertrochantic line
    • Intertrochantric crest
  90. Inferior to the intertrochantric crest on the posterior shaft is the __________ which bends into a long vertical ridge the ________________________ inferiorly.
    • Gluteal tuberosity
    • Linea aspera
  91. Distally, the femur broadens and end in a wheel-like _______and ______, which articulate with the tibia of the leg
    Lateral and medial condyles
  92. The ____________and __________ flank the condyles superiorly.
    medial and lateral epicondyles
  93. On the superior part of the medial epicondyle is a bump, the
    Adductor tubercle
  94. The smooth ________________, between the condyles on the anterior femoral surface, articulates with the patella.
    Patellar surface
  95. Between the condyles on the posterior aspect of the femur is the deep, U-shaped _________.
    Intercondylar fossa
  96. The two parallel bones, the tibia and fibula form he skeleton of the leg, the lower limb between the knee and ankle. These two bones are connected by ____________ and articulate with each other proximally and distally.
    Interosseious membrane
  97. The ____ is the shinbone, which receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot.
    Tibia
  98. At its broad proximal end are the concave _____ and ______, which look like two huge checkers laying side by side.
    Medial and lateral condyles
  99. The medial and lateral condyles of the tibia are separated by an irregular projection, the
    Intercondylar eminence
  100. Just inferior to the condyles, the tibia�s anterior surface displays the rough ________, to which the patellar ligament attaches.
    Tibial tuberosity
  101. Distally the tibia is flat where it articulates with the _____ bone of the foot.
    Talus
  102. The ________ forms the medial bulge of the ankle.
    Medial malleolus
  103. The _______, on the lateral surface of the tibia, participates in the distal tibiofibular joint.
    Fibular notch
  104. The ______ is a sticklike bone with slightly expanded ends. It articulates proximally and distally with the lateral aspects of the tibia.
    Fibula
  105. The proximal end of the fibula is its
    Head
  106. The distal end of the fibula is the
    Lateral malleolus
  107. Inferior to the talus is the
    Calcaneus
  108. The top part of the patella is the
    Base
  109. The bottom part of the patella is the
    Apex
  110. The _________ of the patella articulates with the femur.
    Articular surface
  111. The skeleton of the foot includes the bones of the
    • Tarsus
    • Metatarsals
    • Phalanges
  112. The tarsus is made up of 7 bones called
    Tarsals
  113. The talus is the _____ which articulates with the tibia and fibula superiorly and the strong ______ which form the ____ of the foot and carries the talus on the upper surface.
    • Ankle
    • calcaneus
    • heel
  114. The tarsals include:
    Cuboid, navicular, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform and lateral cuneiform.
  115. The cuboid and cuneiform bones articulate with the _____________ anteriorly.
    Metatarsal bones
  116. The metatarsus consists of 5 small long bones called ________ numbered 1-5 beginning with the big toe side.
    Metatarsals
  117. There are 14 phalanges of the toes. There are three phalanges in each digit except the
    Hallux which only has proximal and distal
  118. The 3 phalanges are named as?
    Proximal, middle and distal.
  119. The arches of the foot are?
    Articular angles of the tarsals and metatarsals
  120. What does the medial longitudinal arch consist of?
    Calcaneous , talus, navicular, 1-3 cuneiforms and the 1st three metatarsals
  121. What does the lateral longitudinal arch consist of?
    Calcaneus, cuboid, and 1-3 cuneiforms
  122. What does the transverse arch consist of
    Base of metatarsals, cuboid, and 1-3 cuneiforms
  123. The arches of the foot are supported by
    Ligament ands some muscular and tendon support
  124. What do the arches do for the body?
    Distribute weight evenly between the heel and the metatarsals.
  125. Flat feet are a result of?
    1 or more fallen arches due to excessive strain on tendons and ligaments.
  126. What is an articulation?
    • Joint
    • Any junction between 2 components of the skeleton; bone-bone, bone-cartilage, bone-teeth
  127. Joints are classified by
    Structure and function
  128. Name the three kinds of joints
    • Fibrous joint
    • Cartilaginous joint
    • Synovial joint
  129. Describe the fibrous joint
    No cavity; fibrous CT
  130. Describe the cartilaginous joint
    No cavity; cartilage
  131. Describe he synovial joint
    Synovial cavity present; articular capsule
  132. What does joint function mean?
    Degree of movement
  133. Name the three kinds of functions for joints
    • Synarthrosis
    • Amphiarthrosis
    • Diarthrosis
  134. Synarthrosis
    Immovable
  135. Amphiarthrosis
    Slightly movable
  136. Diarthrosis
    Freely movable
  137. Name the specific types of fibrous joints
    • Sutures
    • Syndesmosis
    • Gomphosis
  138. Describe a suture
    Immovable; short CT; sagital suture
  139. Describe syndesmosis
    • Slightly movable (to �immovable with give�);
    • Degree of movement depends on length of CT fibers;
    • Distal tibiofibular joint
  140. Gomphosis
    • Immovable; teeth in socket;
    • Periodontial ligament (short CT)
  141. What are the specific types of cartilaginous joints?
    • Synchondrosis
    • Symphasis
  142. Describe snchondrosis
    • Immovable;
    • Hyaline cartilage;
    • Epiphyseal plate and sternum and rib 1
  143. Describe symphasis
    • Slightly movable;
    • Fibrocartilage;
    • Pubic symphasis
  144. ______are those in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity.
    • Synovial joints
    • glassy-smooth hyaline cartilage covers the opposing bone surfaces in a synovial joint as
    • articular cartilage
  145. The joint cavity is enclosed by two layers articular capsules, or joint capsules. The external layer is a ________.
    Fibrous capsule
  146. The fibrous capsule attaches to the
    periosteum
  147. The synovial membrane is formed by
    Loose CT, elastic fibers and adipocytes
  148. The synovial membrane produces
    Synovial fluid
  149. The synovial fluid functions include?
    Lubrication of the joints and nourishes the cartilage
  150. The intrinsic ligament is what and does what?
    • Thickenings of the articular capsule
    • Stabilizes the joint
  151. The extra capsular ligament occurs where?
    Outside the articular capsule and help stabilize the joint
  152. Articular discs or cartilages (fibrocartilages), or menisci do what?
    Extend inward from the articular capsule and partially or completely divide the synovial cavity into two, channel the flow of synovial fluid and allow for variations in articular surface shapes.
  153. The labrum (fibrocatilage) � glenoid labrum do what?
    Deepens the articular surface of the bones
  154. What are the determinants of synovial joint movement?
    • Structure or shape of articulating surface
    • Strength and tension (tautness) of the joint ligaments
    • Muscle arrangements and tension
    • Apposition of soft parts
    • Hormones
  155. Flexion
    Bending or decreasing the angle between bones or parts
  156. Extension
    Straightening of bent part of increasing the angle between bones or parts
  157. Supination
    • Rotates radius laterally around its long axis
    • Palms faces anterior
  158. Pronation
    • Rotates radius medially around its long axis
    • Palm faces posteriorly
  159. Dorsiflexion
    Upward movement of the foot or toes
  160. Plantarflexion
    Downward movement of the foot or toes
  161. Eversion
    Turning the plantar surface of the away from the median plane
  162. Inversion
    Turning the plantar surface of the foot toward the median plane
  163. Abduction
    • Movement of the digits away from the median plane
    • (spread fingers or toes apart)
  164. Adduction
    • Movement of the digits toward the median plane
    • (Bring fingers or toes together)
  165. Rotation
    Revolving of a part around its long axis
  166. Lateral rotation/external rotation
    Rotation away from the median plane
  167. Medial rotation/internal rotation
    Rotation toward the median plane
  168. Protraction
    Anterior of forward movement of the mandible
  169. Retraction
    Posterior of backward movement of the mandible
  170. Elevation
    Lifting, raising or moving a part (mandible ) superiorly
  171. Depression
    Lowering or moving a part (mandible) inferiorly
  172. Glide
    Side to side or back and forth
  173. Circumduction
    Movement if the body to create a �cone� in space
  174. Bilateral contraction
    Both side contraction
  175. Unilateral contraction
    One side contraction
  176. Bone; Articulating bones; Structural type; functional type; Distal tibiofibular joint
    • Tibia and fibula
    • Fibrous; syndesmosis
    • Amphiarthrosis
  177. Bone; Articulating bones; Structural type; functional type; Intervertebral joint
    • Between adjacent centra
    • Cartilaginous; symphasis
    • Amphiarthrosis
  178. Bone; Articulating bones; Structural type; functional type; Pubic symphasis
    • Pubic bones
    • Cartilaginous; symphasis
    • Amphiarothisis
  179. Bone; Articulating bones; Structural type; functional type; skull
    • Cranial and facial bones
    • Fibrous; suture
    • Synarthrosis
  180. Bone; Articulating bones; Structural type; functional type; Sternalcostal joint
    • Sternum and rib 1
    • Cartilaginous; synchondrosis
    • Synarthrosis
  181. Bone; Articulating bones; Structural type; functional type; �The rest are�
    Synovial and diarthrosis
  182. Describe skeletal muscle tissue
    Long cylindrical cells; Multi nucleated cells; Nucleus is peripherally placed; cross striations are obvious;
  183. What are the functions of skeletal muscle tissue?
    Voluntary movement ; Locomotion; manipulation of environment; facial expression; voluntary control.
  184. What is the location of skeletal muscle tissue?
    Attaches to bones
  185. Describe cardiac muscle tissue
    Branching, striated, generally uninucleated cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs)
  186. What is the function of cardiac muscle?
    As it contracts it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control.
  187. What is the location of cardiac muscle?
    The walls of the heart
  188. Describe smooth muscle.
    Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei; no striations; cells arranged closely to form sheets.
  189. What is the function of smooth muscle?
    Propels substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways; involuntary control.
  190. What is the location of smooth muscle cells?
    Mostly in the walls of hallow organs.

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