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effects of predation.
- set carrying capacity
- -set distribution limits of prey
- -influence age/size frequencies within prey populations
- -influence diversity of community
growth of prey population =
intrinsic growth of prey population - removal of prey by predators
stabilizing factor for predator-prey interactions.
- -density-dependent limitation on either predator or prey population (self-limitation)
- -alternative food source for predator
- -refuges for prey in restriccted part of habitat (untouchable reserve)
- -influx of new replacement individuals from source population
example of predator/prey cycles.
- owl/vole population in Scandinavia.
- Northern scandinavia - 4 cycles (voles protected by snow)
- Southern Scandinavia - 1 yr cycle.
directly kill hosts.
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