CIS 4100 Midterm

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endlessx
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73176
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CIS 4100 Midterm
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2011-03-15 23:36:52
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CIS 4100 Midterm
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  1. A(n) operating system is
    • a set of system software
    • routines that sits between the application program and the hardware. It defines
    • a set of standard interface rules, provides numerous services, and serves as a
    • platform for running and developing application programs.
  2. A(n) interface is
    • a point of connection or linkage between two
    • components.
  3. When the user communicates
    directly with the hardware it is not an example of a
    common interface.
  4. All application programs
    access the hardware ______ the operating system following
    rules imposed___ the operating system
    through, by
  5. A(n) service is
    • a software routine that
    • runs in support of another program.
  6. Because different brands of computers often
    imply different hardware, the operating system routines that communicate
    directly with the hardware might be quite different, but the routines that
    interface with the application program present a
    consistent platform tothe programs running on both machines.
  7. The advantage of using layers
    of abstraction is
    • that you can focus on the
    • details of any given component without losing sight of the other component.
  8. The idea behind viewing a
    system as a set of layers of abstraction is
    • derived from an old
    • architectural concept called layering.
  9. The contents of a black
    box are
    • unknown to the other
    • boxes, so each black box is functionally independent.
  10. Two black boxes
    communicate with each other
    • only through a shared interface or point of
    • linkage.
  11. The current program and the current data
    • must be stored in memory before the computer can
    • manipulate the data.
  12. a byte is
    On most computers, the basic addressable unit of memory
  13. When you ­­­­read memory, you do not change the
    contents. When you write memory you
    destroy the old contents.
  14. Most computer memory is
    RAM
  15. ROM can be read, but not
    written
  16. A byte contains enough bits (usually eight) to
    represent a single character
  17. Most computers are able to manipulate a group of bytes
    • called
    • a word that often holds a single number.
  18. To distinguish them, each byte (more generally, each
    physical storage unit) is assigned a
    unique address.
  19. Data moves between the processor and memory
    one byte or one word at a time.
  20. One way to increase processing speed is to move program
    instructions and data from memory to the processor more quickly. To help
    accomplish this objective, many computers
    contain a block of high-speed cache memory.
  21. A computer is a machine
    that
    • processes data under
    • control of ­­­ a stored program
  22. In a program, each instruction
    • tells the computer to perform one of its basic
    • functions.
  23. A typical instruction
    contains an operation code that specifies the function to be performed and one
    or more operands that specify
    • the memory locations or
    • registers that hold the data to be manipulated.
  24. A program stored in memory
    must be
    in binary form.
  25. Hardware works with absolute
    addresses, fetching and storing the contents of individual bytes by referencing
    their
    byte numbers.
  26. A relative address is an
    address expressed relative to some
    base location.
  27. The process of converting
    a relative address to an absolute address is called
    • dynamic address
    • translation.
  28. An assembler program reads
    a programmer’s source code and produces
    a(n) object module.
  29. An assembler language
    programmer writes one mnemonic instruction for each
    machine-level instruction.
  30. With a compiler, a given
    source statement may be converted to any number of
    • machine-level
    • instructions.
  31. A computer’s internal components are physically linked
    by a
    • bus, a ribbon-like set of electrical lines (or wires)
    • that carries several bits at a time, in parallel.
  32. Many personal computers feature a local I/O bus that
    follows the PCI (peripheral component interconnect) standard and a slower
    ISA (industry standard architecture) bus.
  33. On most systems the internal components are designed
    around
    a common word size.
  34. Memory capacity is not affected by
    a computer’s word size
  35. On a small computer, it is possible to gain memory
    capacity by
    sacrificing speed
  36. A computer’s memory capacity is a function of its
    word size
  37. A 16-bit machine can access more than 64 KB if addresses are
    • broken into two or more parts and transmitted during
    • successive machine cycles.
  38. During I-time, the instruction control unit
    fetches the next instruction from memory.
  39. A register called the instruction counter points
    • 1. to the computer’s next
    • instruction.
  40. During E-time, the arithmetic and logic unit executes
    the instruction stored in the
    instruction register.
  41. The user interface provides
    a mechanism for the system operator and the user to
    • communicate with the
    • operating system and request operating system services.
  42. The file system incorporates
    routines that allow the user or programmer to
    • create, delete, modify,
    • and manipulate files by name.
  43. Memory management is
    concerned with
    • managing the system’s memory resources,
    • allocating space to applications as needed and ensuring that those applications
    • do not interfere with each other.
  44. An application program transparently requests operating
    system services through an
    application programming interface (API).
  45. A system operator or a user identifies the program to be
    launched by
    • issuing one or more commands directly to the operating
    • system.
  46. The operating system’s user interface
    accepts, interprets, and carries out commands.
  47. A user communicates with a command
    line interface or shell by
    • typing brief, cryptic
    • commands.
  48. A menu interface presents
    • the user with a list of
    • available options.
  49. The Apple Macintosh and
    Microsoft Windows both feature a graphical user interface (GUI) that presents
    the user with
    • a selection of windows, icons, and
    • menus.
  50. Several different user
    interface(s) can
    • coexist on the same
    • computer

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