NSCI 115

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mLy
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NSCI 115
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2010-02-18 17:59:57
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  1. What are the three “value” of resources that is judged differently by different people?
    • 1. Some see only economic
    • 2. Some
    • 3. Some












  2. What are the types of resources?
    • 1. Renewable VS. Non-Renewable
    • 2. Reserves
  3. What is renewable verses non-renewable?
    • Depends on rates of formations and usage
    • *get energy from coal and gas, coal and natural gas is nonrenewable
    • *will use up coal and gas faster than it is forming
    • -some resources depend on how we use it and can go both ways

    Ex: water, hydro-electric is renewable
  4. What is reserves?
    • Located resources that can be profitable extracted
    • *only when you can drill extract and money
    • EX: oil
  5. What are the 3 ways the Conservation approached land and resources management?
    • 1. Reduce: efficiency improvements
    • 2. Reuse & Recycle: repeated usage in one form or another
    • -plastic made from petroleum
    • 3. Substitution: one resources used in place of another
  6. What is demography?
    Study of size, growth, distribution, & characteristics of human population
  7. What is the population in 2007?
    • - 6.6 billion peoplein the world
    • - population levels affect resource use and pollution/waste
  8. What are the two impact of demography or two impact of populations?
    • 1. Resource depletion
    • 2. Pollution
  9. What is growth curves?
    natural population exhibit an S-shaped curve
  10. What are the 3 growth curve?
    • 1. Lag phase: slow growth
    • 2. Exponential phase: increasingly rapid growth
    • 3. growth slows down and levels out or slightly decreases
  11. What is carrying capacity?
    • maximum popultion size that can be sustained by an environment for a "long time"
    • --some animals go extinct
  12. What is earth's carrying capacity for humans?
    • We dont know.
    • --estimates carry widely - vary by orders of magnitude
  13. What can passing carrying capacity lead up to?
    • Passing carrying capacity may lead to population crash by disease, famine, drought, etc.
    • --can happen locally or globally
    • --is being modified by tech through doctors and nurses, etc.
  14. What is the Lag Phase?
    From ~125,000 human ancestors (~1Ma) to 5-10 million (by ~8000BCE)

    Went from hunter to gather to agricultural revolution

    Increase attributed to tool use, migration, use of fire
  15. When were animals extinct?
    During American immigration
  16. What is Exponential Phase?
    Agricutural (Neolithic) Revolution (start of expontential growth)

    Spread of agriculture & demestication 8,000-5,000 years ago

    By AD 1: ~ 300 million people
  17. What is Industrial Revolution?
    Cheap advances in mass production, germ theory, good improvements

    by AD 1800: ~1 billion people
  18. What is Green Revolution?
    Agricultural Industrialization

    Farm
  19. What is Population Distribution?
    Not evenly distributed and changes over time
  20. What is Age Structure Profiles?
    Growth Rate: expressed as % annual growth
  21. What is Total Fertility Rate (TFR)?
    # of children a woman will have on average during her child bearing years

    ~2.1 is replacement level
  22. What is More Developed Countries (MDC)?
    • North America
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • Australia
    • Former Soviet Union
  23. What is Less Developed Countries (LDC)?
    • South America
    • Africa
    • Rest of Asia
  24. What is MDC Age Profile?
    Uniform age profile: about same 3 of people in each age group until 50's
  25. What is LDC Age Profile?
    Profile is strongly skewed toward younger age groups

    Even if TFR drops to replacement level, population will continue to grow
  26. What is World Age Profile?
    2002 resembles LDC profiles, 2050 projections resembles MDC profiles

    Population will continue to increase until TFR is below replacement level AND world age profile is no longer skewed

    Consequences? Population is a factor of the impace we have on the plant
  27. What is United States Population?
    ~300 million people (4.6 % of the world's population)

    TFR~ 2.08 & MDC profile, but not population is still growing due to immigration

    Has very high per capita consumption

    Population skewed towards Baby Boomers (dont count on social security)
  28. What are some solutions to population increase?
    • Education
    • Contraceptive use
    • Family Planning
    • Moral Restraint
    • Economic Incentives
    • Government Regulations
  29. What is a problem to Beijing's one-child policy?
    They want a boy first, if girl then the child is either abandoned or given up
  30. How does evolution work?
    Population have inherent variability

    Traits (expression of genes) might provide advantages and disadvantages for survival and reproduction

    Heredity provides a pathway for favorable traits to be passed on

    Repeat several million times
  31. How can extinction occur?
    May be local, regional, or global

    Can lose a habitat in one place but is somehwere else would be protected

    Some events are horrific, sheer luck might be the best survival traits (astro hit earth, small reptile with slow metabolism survived, big water reptile didnt but small fishes did
  32. What are the factors to extinction?
    • Environmental
    • Catastrophic
    • Man-Made
  33. What are generalist?
    Might have advantages over specialists

    Have narrow range under conditions, depend on habitat, and if they depend only on one food and there is no more there are problems
  34. What does extinction do to surviving groups?
    It opens up the niches for the radiation of survivng groups
  35. What is the human influence on extinction?
    • Habitat disruption
    • Fragmentation
    • Introduced species
    • Overhunting

    Humans might be 6th Mass Extinction
  36. What is biodiversity?
    the variety of living things in an area

    can be expressed at genetic level

    # of species or other classification level
  37. What does evolution to produce in biodiversity?
    An increasingly diverse biosphere

    Background extinction rate is not so fast (at the rate at which new species evolve)

    Mass extinctions causes setbacks in total biodiversity (extinction leads to open niches, survivors multiple in new niches, new species are created
  38. What is the history of diversification?
    • 1. Precambrain
    • 2. Paleozoic Era
    • 3. Mesozoic Era
    • 4. Cenozoic Era
  39. What is the Precambrian?
    • 1st Life (Prokaryotes)
    • 1st Eukaryotes
    • 1st Multicellular Life
    • Every life on Earth was soft
  40. What is Prokaryotes?
    Simple organism, single cell, does not have nuclei
  41. What are Eukaryotes?
    Single cell organism, have nucleus
  42. What are Multi-Cellular?
    Development of Eukaryotes
  43. What is the Paleozoic Era?
    • Cambrian explosion of life (1st hard parts)
    • 1st vertebrates (fishes)
    • Invasion of land (plants, Arthropods - joints appendix with exoskeleton, amphibians)
    • 1st seed plant (freedom from water)
    • 1st reptiles
  44. What is the Mesozoic Era?
    • Diversification of reptiles (Dinosaurs, flying reptiles, marine reptiles)
    • 1st Mammals
    • 1st Birds
    • 1st Flowering plants
  45. What is the Cenozoic Era?
    Diversification of mammals
  46. How many species are there in the world?
    We are not sure

    Ranges from 5 million to 100 million
  47. What ways do scientist estimate how many species there are in the world?
    • 1. Ratios
    • 2. Species Area Curves
  48. What is the Ratios of estimating species?
    Count known species, project total based on ratios
  49. What is Species Area Curves on estimating species?
    • Start counting species
    • Project the slowing rate of new discoveries
  50. What is happening today with biodiversity?
    We live in a time when diversity is at or near its peak

    Many scientist are concerned that human impacts are causing extinctions at an unprecedented rate

    6th Mass Extinction?
  51. What are parts of Earth's System?
    Physical Environment: Lithosphere (land), Hydrosphere (water), Atmosphere (air)

    Biological Environment: Biosphere
  52. What does matter and energy do to the sphere?
    The flow from one "sphere" to another

    Described by biogeochemical cycles
  53. What undergo changes in the biosphere?
    • Ecosystems
    • Organisms
  54. What are most of biological process fueled from?
    Energy from the sun
  55. What is Ecology?
    Study of organism; their relationships to each other & surrounding environment
  56. What is Biological Species Concept?
    Group of organisms that interbreed and producce viable offsprings
  57. What is Population?
    Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area

    Regulation of growth by limiting factors
  58. What is the Law of minimum?
    Growth is controlled by resources in shortest supplies
  59. What is Ecological Release?
    If control is changed
  60. What is Community?
    All of the populations in an area
  61. What is an Ecosystem?
    Community plus its surrounding environment
  62. What are 3 limiting factors?
    • 1. Physical Environment: resources avaliability
    • 2. Biological Environment: organism interactions
    • 3. Niche: how an organism makes its' living
  63. What is Habitat?
    Where an organism lives
  64. What are some symbiosis factors?
    • 1. Competition: predator against each other for resources
    • 2. Mutualism: both benefit
    • 3. Commensalism: helps one and dont harm the other
    • 4. Parasitism: helps one, harms the other
  65. What is Endemic?
    Only live in one area & one area only

    EX: Verreaux's sifaka: only in Madagascar
  66. What is Invasive?
    When one species comes from another inhabit to invade other species

    EX: Starlings from London affects Blue Birds in America
  67. Name some of the limiting factors controlling the population range.
    • Central maximum
    • Zone of Physiological Stress
    • Zone of Intolerance
  68. What is Ecotone?
    Sharp boundary between seperate communites
  69. What is community diversity?
    Changes :Follow latitude, Elevation, Water Depth, etc.

    Change overtime tracked with succession
  70. What is the Ecological Succession?
    Pioneer Community--Intermediate--Climax Community

    Relate to amount of energy available to an ecosystem
  71. What is Net Primary Productivity?
    Rate that producer biomass is formed in a community (photosynthesis)

    Energy transfer tracked with food chains & food webs
  72. What is Abiogenesis?
    Study of the Origin of Life

    Origin of Life: first evidence of life (3.5Ba) soon after conditions for life were favorable (4.0Ba)

    -Miller's & Urey's experiment
  73. What was William Smith theory?
    Fossil Succession: vertical order of fossils is the same in different places
  74. What is Baron Georges Cuvier theory?
    Concept of extinction
  75. What is Evolution?
    Change through time
  76. What was Charles Darwin theory?
    Natural Selection
  77. What is Natural Selection described as?
    Survival through superior adaptation

    Envisioned species arising from natural selection
  78. What is survival of the "fitness"?
    Adaptation to niche to survive
  79. What did Mendel show to other scientist?
    How traits are passed through herdity (genetics)
  80. How does evolution work?
    • Variability
    • Reproduction
    • Heredity
    • Repeat

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