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What are the three “value” of resources that is judged differently by different people?
- 1. Some see only economic
- 2. Some
- 3. Some
What are the types of resources?
- 1. Renewable VS. Non-Renewable
- 2. Reserves
What is renewable verses non-renewable?
- Depends on rates of formations and usage
- *get energy from coal and gas, coal and natural gas is nonrenewable
- *will use up coal and gas faster than it is forming
- -some resources depend on how we use it and can go both ways
Ex: water, hydro-electric is renewable
What is reserves?
- Located resources that can be profitable extracted
- *only when you can drill extract and money
- EX: oil
What are the 3 ways the Conservation approached land and resources management?
- 1. Reduce: efficiency improvements
- 2. Reuse & Recycle: repeated usage in one form or another
- -plastic made from petroleum
- 3. Substitution: one resources used in place of another
What is demography?
Study of size, growth, distribution, & characteristics of human population
What is the population in 2007?
- - 6.6 billion peoplein the world
- - population levels affect resource use and pollution/waste
What are the two impact of demography or two impact of populations?
- 1. Resource depletion
- 2. Pollution
What is growth curves?
natural population exhibit an S-shaped curve
What are the 3 growth curve?
- 1. Lag phase: slow growth
- 2. Exponential phase: increasingly rapid growth
- 3. growth slows down and levels out or slightly decreases
What is carrying capacity?
- maximum popultion size that can be sustained by an environment for a "long time"
- --some animals go extinct
What is earth's carrying capacity for humans?
- We dont know.
- --estimates carry widely - vary by orders of magnitude
What can passing carrying capacity lead up to?
- Passing carrying capacity may lead to population crash by disease, famine, drought, etc.
- --can happen locally or globally
- --is being modified by tech through doctors and nurses, etc.
What is the Lag Phase?
From ~125,000 human ancestors (~1Ma) to 5-10 million (by ~8000BCE)
Went from hunter to gather to agricultural revolution
Increase attributed to tool use, migration, use of fire
When were animals extinct?
During American immigration
What is Exponential Phase?
Agricutural (Neolithic) Revolution (start of expontential growth)
Spread of agriculture & demestication 8,000-5,000 years ago
By AD 1: ~ 300 million people
What is Industrial Revolution?
Cheap advances in mass production, germ theory, good improvements
by AD 1800: ~1 billion people
What is Green Revolution?
What is Population Distribution?
Not evenly distributed and changes over time
What is Age Structure Profiles?
Growth Rate: expressed as % annual growth
What is Total Fertility Rate (TFR)?
# of children a woman will have on average during her child bearing years
~2.1 is replacement level
What is More Developed Countries (MDC)?
- North America
- Former Soviet Union
What is Less Developed Countries (LDC)?
- South America
- Rest of Asia
What is MDC Age Profile?
Uniform age profile: about same 3 of people in each age group until 50's
What is LDC Age Profile?
Profile is strongly skewed toward younger age groups
Even if TFR drops to replacement level, population will continue to grow
What is World Age Profile?
2002 resembles LDC profiles, 2050 projections resembles MDC profiles
Population will continue to increase until TFR is below replacement level AND world age profile is no longer skewed
Consequences? Population is a factor of the impace we have on the plant
What is United States Population?
~300 million people (4.6 % of the world's population)
TFR~ 2.08 & MDC profile, but not population is still growing due to immigration
Has very high per capita consumption
Population skewed towards Baby Boomers (dont count on social security)
What are some solutions to population increase?
- Contraceptive use
- Family Planning
- Moral Restraint
- Economic Incentives
- Government Regulations
What is a problem to Beijing's one-child policy?
They want a boy first, if girl then the child is either abandoned or given up
How does evolution work?
Population have inherent variability
Traits (expression of genes) might provide advantages and disadvantages for survival and reproduction
Heredity provides a pathway for favorable traits to be passed on
Repeat several million times
How can extinction occur?
May be local, regional, or global
Can lose a habitat in one place but is somehwere else would be protected
Some events are horrific, sheer luck might be the best survival traits (astro hit earth, small reptile with slow metabolism survived, big water reptile didnt but small fishes did
What are the factors to extinction?
What are generalist?
Might have advantages over specialists
Have narrow range under conditions, depend on habitat, and if they depend only on one food and there is no more there are problems
What does extinction do to surviving groups?
It opens up the niches for the radiation of survivng groups
What is the human influence on extinction?
- Habitat disruption
- Introduced species
Humans might be 6th Mass Extinction
What is biodiversity?
the variety of living things in an area
can be expressed at genetic level
# of species or other classification level
What does evolution to produce in biodiversity?
An increasingly diverse biosphere
Background extinction rate is not so fast (at the rate at which new species evolve)
Mass extinctions causes setbacks in total biodiversity (extinction leads to open niches, survivors multiple in new niches, new species are created
What is the history of diversification?
- 1. Precambrain
- 2. Paleozoic Era
- 3. Mesozoic Era
- 4. Cenozoic Era
What is the Precambrian?
- 1st Life (Prokaryotes)
- 1st Eukaryotes
- 1st Multicellular Life
- Every life on Earth was soft
What is Prokaryotes?
Simple organism, single cell, does not have nuclei
What are Eukaryotes?
Single cell organism, have nucleus
What are Multi-Cellular?
Development of Eukaryotes
What is the Paleozoic Era?
- Cambrian explosion of life (1st hard parts)
- 1st vertebrates (fishes)
- Invasion of land (plants, Arthropods - joints appendix with exoskeleton, amphibians)
- 1st seed plant (freedom from water)
- 1st reptiles
What is the Mesozoic Era?
- Diversification of reptiles (Dinosaurs, flying reptiles, marine reptiles)
- 1st Mammals
- 1st Birds
- 1st Flowering plants
What is the Cenozoic Era?
Diversification of mammals
How many species are there in the world?
We are not sure
Ranges from 5 million to 100 million
What ways do scientist estimate how many species there are in the world?
- 1. Ratios
- 2. Species Area Curves
What is the Ratios of estimating species?
Count known species, project total based on ratios
What is Species Area Curves on estimating species?
- Start counting species
- Project the slowing rate of new discoveries
What is happening today with biodiversity?
We live in a time when diversity is at or near its peak
Many scientist are concerned that human impacts are causing extinctions at an unprecedented rate
6th Mass Extinction?
What are parts of Earth's System?
Physical Environment: Lithosphere (land), Hydrosphere (water), Atmosphere (air)
Biological Environment: Biosphere
What does matter and energy do to the sphere?
The flow from one "sphere" to another
Described by biogeochemical cycles
What undergo changes in the biosphere?
What are most of biological process fueled from?
Energy from the sun
What is Ecology?
Study of organism; their relationships to each other & surrounding environment
What is Biological Species Concept?
Group of organisms that interbreed and producce viable offsprings
What is Population?
Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area
Regulation of growth by limiting factors
What is the Law of minimum?
Growth is controlled by resources in shortest supplies
What is Ecological Release?
If control is changed
What is Community?
All of the populations in an area
What is an Ecosystem?
Community plus its surrounding environment
What are 3 limiting factors?
- 1. Physical Environment: resources avaliability
- 2. Biological Environment: organism interactions
- 3. Niche: how an organism makes its' living
What is Habitat?
Where an organism lives
What are some symbiosis factors?
- 1. Competition: predator against each other for resources
- 2. Mutualism: both benefit
- 3. Commensalism: helps one and dont harm the other
- 4. Parasitism: helps one, harms the other
What is Endemic?
Only live in one area & one area only
EX: Verreaux's sifaka: only in Madagascar
What is Invasive?
When one species comes from another inhabit to invade other species
EX: Starlings from London affects Blue Birds in America
Name some of the limiting factors controlling the population range.
- Central maximum
- Zone of Physiological Stress
- Zone of Intolerance
What is Ecotone?
Sharp boundary between seperate communites
What is community diversity?
Changes :Follow latitude, Elevation, Water Depth, etc.
Change overtime tracked with succession
What is the Ecological Succession?
Pioneer Community--Intermediate--Climax Community
Relate to amount of energy available to an ecosystem
What is Net Primary Productivity?
Rate that producer biomass is formed in a community (photosynthesis)
Energy transfer tracked with food chains & food webs
What is Abiogenesis?
Study of the Origin of Life
Origin of Life: first evidence of life (3.5Ba) soon after conditions for life were favorable (4.0Ba)
-Miller's & Urey's experiment
What was William Smith theory?
Fossil Succession: vertical order of fossils is the same in different places
What is Baron Georges Cuvier theory?
Concept of extinction
What is Evolution?
Change through time
What was Charles Darwin theory?
What is Natural Selection described as?
Survival through superior adaptation
Envisioned species arising from natural selection
What is survival of the "fitness"?
Adaptation to niche to survive
What did Mendel show to other scientist?
How traits are passed through herdity (genetics)
How does evolution work?