Chap 6

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Chap 6
2011-03-16 02:21:45

geo test
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  1. Remains or traces of ancient life which have been preserved by natural causes in the Earth's crust; include both remains (bones/shells) and traces (tracks)
  2. Fossils that include tracks, trails, and burrows
    trace fossils
  3. To become preserved as a fossil, an organism must:
    1.) Have preservable parts (Bones, shells, teeth) 2.) Be buried by sediment to protect from scavengers/decay 3.) Escape physical/chemical/biological destruction after burial
  4. What characteristics are favorable for fossil preservation?
    Rapid burial w/ sediment to protect from scavenging/decay and presence of hard parts
  5. Types of fossil preservation:
    Preservation of Unaltered Hard Parts, Preservation of Unaltered Soft Parts, Chemical Alteration of Hard Parts, Imprints of Hard Parts (cast/mold), Trace fossils/Ichnofossils
  6. Filling of tiny pores with minerals (chemical alteration of hard parts)
  7. Molecule-by-molecule substitution of one mineral for another (chemical alteration of hard parts)
  8. Aragonite alters to calcite (chemical alteration of hard parts)
  9. Soft tissues preserved as a thin carbon film ex. ferns in shale (chemical alteration of hard parts)
  10. When mold becomes filled
  11. Impressions (external/internal)
  12. Preservation of unaltered soft parts:
    Freezing, desiccation (drying/mummification), preservation in amber, tar, or peat bogs
  13. Markings in the sediment made by the activities of organisms
    Trace fossils or Ichnofossils
  14. Types of trace fossils:
    Tracks, trails, burrows, borings, root marks
  15. First: genus
    Second: species
    underlined/italicized; Homo sapiens
  16. Group of organisms that have structural, functional, developmental similarities; able to interbreed naturally; fundamental unit of biological classification
  17. Organisms are grouped based on their similarities into taxonomic groups or taxa
  18. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  19. Classification of the human
    Domain: Eukarya. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: Mammalia. Order: Primates. Family: Hominidae. Genus: Homo. Species: sapiens
  20. How many kingdoms of organisms are there? How many domains?
    6 kingdoms and 3 domains
  21. Domain Archaea
    Kingdom Archaeabacteria
  22. Doman Bacteria
    Kingdom Eubacteria
  23. Doman Eukarya
    Kingdom Protists, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
  24. Organic evolution
    refers to changes in populations; evolution is the "great unifying theory" for understanding history of life
  25. Darwin's book "On The Orgin of Species" was published in:
  26. What was the cause of variations in offspring?
  27. located in nucleus of cells; consist of long DNA molecules
    Chromosomes; a human has 46
  28. The parts of the DNA molecule that transmit hereditary traits
  29. The DNA molecule consists of two parallel strands (twisted ladder) and are made up of:
    phosphate and sugar compounds, linked with nitrogenous bases
  30. Chemical changes to DNA molecule
  31. Mutations can be caused by:
    Chemicals, radiation, or w/out a specific causative agent; may occur in any cell, but mutation in sex cells will be passed on
  32. Causes of evolution- Evolution may involve change from 3 different sources:
    1.) mutations 2.) gene recombination as a result of sexual reproduction 3.) natural selection
  33. The process through which new species arise
  34. The branching of a population to produce descendants adapted to particular environments & living strategies
    Adaptive radiation (ex. bird beaks)
  35. Gradual progressive change by means of many small steps; old idea of how evolution occured
    Phyletic gradualism
  36. Sudden changes interrupting long periods of little change; most changes occur over short period of time
    Punctuated equilibrium
  37. body parts with similar origin, history, and structure, but different functions
    Homologous structures (hands/wings of humans, birds, whales, etc)
  38. organs that serve no apparent purpose, but resemble functioning organs in other animals; suggest common ancestry
    Vestigial organs
  39. Similarity of embryos of all vertebrates suggest a common ancestry
  40. based on the appearance and disappearance of fossil species in the stratigraphic record
    The Geologic Time Scale
  41. ____ can also be used to correlate strata from place to place.
  42. Apart from evolution & extinction, appearances and disappearances of fossils may indicate:
    Changing environmental conditions that cause organisms to migrate into/out of an area or "reworked fossils"
  43. useful in identifying time-rock units and in correlation; diff sediments may look diff depending on conditions under which they were laid down, but may include remains of same species of fossil
    Index fossils (or guide fossils)
  44. Characteristics of an index fossil:
    1.) abundant 2.) widely distributed 3.) short geologic range
  45. A body of rock deposited during the time when a particular fossil organism existed; identified only on the basis of the fossils it contains.
    Biozone (basic unit for biostratigraphic classification and correlation)
  46. The ocean may be divided into two realms:
    Pelagic realm and Benthic realm
  47. The water mass lying above the ocean floor:
    Pelagic realm
  48. The bottom of the sea:
    Benthic realm
  49. Small plants and animals thatfloat, drift, or swim weakly:
  50. Plants and plant-like plankton, such as diatoms and coccolithophores
  51. Animals and animal like plankton, such as foraminifera and radiolaria
  52. Swimming animals that live within the water column
  53. Sea-bottom dwellers:
  54. Use of fossils in reconstructing ancient geography:
    Note locations of fossil species of same age on map; Interpret paleoenvironment for each region using rock types/sedimentary structures/fossils; Plot environments to produce apaleogeographic map for that time interval
  55. The oldest fossil is _____ years old
    3.5 billion; remains of simple prokaryotic cells; found in algal mats & stromatolites
  56. Mass extinctions occurred at the ends of the following periods:
    Ordovician, Devonian (70% marine extinct), Permian (greatest extinction), Triassic, Cretaceous (dinosaurs)