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The Definition of Assimilation?
- occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into existing schemes.
- A baby grasps onto things.
What is Accommodation?
Occurs when schems are modified based on experience...some things can be lifted with two hands, and some things cannot be lifted at all. The baby then creates a new scheme.
What is Equilibration?
- Assimilation and Accommodation are usually in balance or Equilibrium.
- The old is replaced with the new. They are creating a new scheme.
What is Disequilibrium?
children discover their current schemes are not adequate because they are spending much more time accommodating rather than assimilating.
What happens in Substage 1?
- Reflexive schemes (birth to 1 month) As newborns use reflexes, they become more coordinated.
- Survival reflexes: rooting, swimming and the palmar grasp reflex.
What is the Chief Mechanism for change?
primary circular reaction.
What is Primary Circular Reaction?
when an infant accidentally produces a pleasing event and then tries to re-create it.
What are Secondary Circular Reactions?
children are learning the sights and sounds associated with objects.
What occurs in Substage 4?
using one action as a means to acheive another end is the first indication of purposeful, goal-directed behavior during infancy.
Object Permanence means what?
that an object exists independently whether we see them or not.
What happens on Substage 5?
the infant will become an active experimentalist.
What does Tertiary circular reactions mean?
repeating old schemes with novel objects as if trying to understand why different objects yeild different outcomes.
what happens in Substage 6: Mental representation (18 to 24 months)?
infants have begun to talk and gesture, which is evidence of the emerging ability to use symbols.
Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 years old
What is the definition of Animism?
They credit inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties.
Appearance as reality: An objects appearance IS what the object really is.
Chapter 7: Chess and Thomas
Three types of temperament
[7.1] Which has the higher percentage out of the three?
Easy child, (40%) establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences.
[7.2] About 35% of the children did not fit any of these categories, WHY?
Instead they showed unique blends of temperament characteristics.
[7.3] What does the assignment of the "difficult" pattern seem to indicate?
children who are at high risk for adjustment problems, both anxious withdrawl and aggressive behavior in early and middle childhood.
[7.4] Mary Rothbart's Model of Temperament:
What is unique to Rothbart?
Irritable Distress: extent of fussing, crying, and distress when desires are fustrated.
[7.5 MR] What is part of Rothbart's model?
- Effortful control:
[What category does Rothbart have that differs from Chess and thomas?