Card Set Information
Attitudes Test 2
6-1: Cults initially recruit members by providing an environment where negative emotions
6-2: Implicit norms are those that are explicating and verbally expressed.
6-3: Conformity effects result in agreement with the perceptions of others, even when they go
against our initial assessment.
6-4: Studies suggests that the first person to respond in a group has the most influence, but only when the
overriding purpose is to fulfill social acceptance.
6-5: When we conform, the second
and third responder are the most likely to influence us when we are motivated
to be right.
6-6: Even when everyone in a group disagrees with us, a single person who speaks up and
agrees with us
motivate us to hold to our position.
6-7: Hazing rituals can be cruel, and no research suggests that it helps build cohesiveness.
it is to get into a group, the
likely we will go along with group values and
6-9: Ethnocentrism is due to too
emphasis on cohesiveness and identification with the
6-10: Males are more likely to
conform than females.
6-11: A new corporation faced
with a highly competitive, volatile, and uncertain environment would benefit
from a manager with
6-12: Individualistic cultures tend to be less conforming.
6-13: Consistency theory suggests that we are
likely to conform with those we like, even when we personally disagree
6-14: “Social proof” refers to the notion that what is popularly believed is most likely
6-15: Viral marketing operates on
the principle of social proof.
6-16: Being excluded from a group
can lead to overcompensate and go along, making them sometimes easier to
6-17: “Flaming” another on a blog
may be due to deindividuation, the
in an individual’s sense of
personal identity that occurs in anonymous environments
6-18: We tend to work
in groups, particularly when we don’t think others will be able to perceive our
6-19: Groups tend to
risk taking and risk avoidance, according to the group polarization phenomenon.
personal communication (self talk) can lead to increasingly polarized positions due to
7-21: The meaning of arbitrary symbols does
require any level of agreement
with others that share the symbol.
7-22: Charismatic terms are those that normally have clear, agreed-upon definitions.
7-23: The Elaboration Likelihood
Model may explain why people tend to rely on peripheral processing when they
7-24: We tend to favor those things that are
from our perception of ourselves
7-25: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis predicts that how we perceive reality
ways affected by the language we use.
7-26: People may use euphemisms
for saving their own face, but
for saving the face of others
possible to use intense language, like profanity, without being
7-28: People are
likely to see a person as less persuasive, likeable, or credible, if they use
7-29: Vividness in language is not necessarily more persuasive unless the vivid language is pertinent to the message.
7-30: People are
likely to be persuaded by very intense language if they already agree with the speaker’s position.
7-31: Highly credible speakers must be
careful to adhere to listener expectations concerning language, compared to less credible speakers.
7-32: Information Processing Theory would predict that language that is perceived as too intense may result in listeners that attend to
of the message’s content.
7-33: Communication Accommodation Theory suggests that highly intense and vivid language is most effective with people that use language
in intensity and vividness.
7-34: Some forms of what is called “powerless language”
be effective with some people in certain contexts.
7-35: Females using powerless language are more persuasive with males than with females
8-36: If someone nonverbally disapproval or disbelief of a speaker behind the speaker’s
8-37: Nonverbal codes operate in isolation
8-38: Making eye-contact makes people
persuasive, unless the request is illegitimate, which makes
of eye-contact more persuasive.
8-39: A persuader that generates a quick smile or who smiles quite a bit is seen as more persuasive.
8-40: Mimicking the nonverbal of the one you wish to persuade is likely to make you less persuasive.
8-41: When we want to be disliked
or rejected, we may smile when others frown, or frown when they smile
8-42: Keeping your arms and legs close to your body can make you
8-43: Emblems can
retention in those we persuade
8-44: We should avoid illustrators, as they decrease our persuasiveness
8-45: If we constantly touch ourselves while communicating, we give the impression of confidence and happiness
8-46: Instrumental NFTs, unlike autotelic NFTs, touch things because they simply like to touch.
8-47: Being geographically near people is found to
our attractiveness, persusasiveness, and credibility
8-48: Expectancy violations theory predicts that we are likely to view minor nonverbal violations as
positive if the violator is viewed as potentially rewarding, likeable, or attractive
8-49: The “Scarcity Principle” asserts that if we believe something is scarce, we want it
8-50: The “halo effect” might result in our judging all behaviors of another as
if we perceive one particularly positive characteristic
8-51: A study found that overweight males seen eating large meals were perceived as
attractive than overweight males eating small meals
9-52: A speaker offering
conclusions uses subtle hints rather than strong behavioral or belief
9-53: Most people prefer gain-framed messages over loss-framed messages, even when they are identical in meaning
9-54: People prefer quality over quantity in arguments, regardless of the type of persuasive message
of arguments you use is a
9-56: A study found that people with very high credibility, persuasiveness is
helped by the use of evidence
9-57: Repeated exposure to both verbal messages and nonverbal messages
their likeability, but only if the listeners find the messages
9-58: The order of our weak and strong arguments is more important for the visual channel than for the auditory channel
9-59: Primacy is better than recency if, after hearing two back-to-back contrasting messages, there is a considerable delay before you make a decision
9-60: Motivated people are
effects when messages are chunked
9-61: You can
the strength of opposing arguments by presenting weak versions of them to the listener
9-62: An inoculation defense is not as effective as a supportive defense
9-63: Inoculation makes people think of
arguments that support their beliefs, making opposing arguments
works best for people with little education, and for those that already support
9-65: A persuasive argument that includes both sides, but does not refute opposing arguments, is
effective than presenting one side only
9-66: Heckling a speaker can make the speaker seem less persuasive
10-67: Pregiving as a persuasive strategy is effective unless it is
seen as a favor or gift
10-68: Pregiving is
effective across cultures
10-69: Research on the
“foot-in-the-door strategy” has that it works well face-to-face, but not in
10-70: One’s self perception most likely has some effect on the effectiveness of the “foot-in-the-door strategy.”
10-71: Pregiving and the “foot-in-the-door strategy” are even more effective when combined
10-72: People that are clearer than others about their self-concept are
susceptible to the “foot-in-the-door strategy.”
10-73: The “foot-on-the-mouth
effective because people wish to be seen as consistent
10-74: “Door-in-the-face” has found
very little empirical support
10-75: The “perceptual contrast effect” may result in students wishing to deliver their speeches after someone
than they believe they are
10-76:“Reciprocal concessions” means we
motivated to return favors granted to us by others
10-77: The “foot-in-the-door strategy”
the “door-in-the-face” strategy do not work well if a different person makes the second request
10-78: The “that’s not all” strategy is similar to the “
10-79: Lowballing is both unethical and
10-80: The “fear-then-relief” and “disrupt-then-reframe” techniques are effective because both techniques allow the target individual to make clear decisions based on rational thinking
: unchallengable because if you argue against it, wow you are against community outreach ?! well, no, I just want to use the money in a better way.
God, devil, and charismatic terms have most power with people who...
are NOT centrally concerned with the issue.
they serve as peripheral shortcuts
Powerless language types
7 types, what do they all have in common?
hesitations, hedges, intensifiers, superpolite, tag questions, disclaimers, deictic phrases,
-all passive tesne
yes, um, that's correct
Sort of, I guess
I really agree with you....very much.
would you please, I'd really appreciate it if
it's cold, isn't it?
I know this is a stupid thing to ask, but...?
that car over there is the one that hit the garden wall
Powerless language gender differences
Females more persuasive with makes when using powerless language, more persuasive with females when avoiding them
-central route ELM
: change minds
-Fact-based language; concrete terms
-Reasoning, logic, "what is" talk
*Pragmatic speakers live in a world of what is, as opposed to many who live in what SHOULD
Unifying Persuaders (4)
-peripheral route ELM
: preaching to the choir
- Abstract language; references to the "ideal"; "should be" talk; emotional proofs; less reasoning and logic
-Which way will you turn when you enter the store? Most is right
-How do you get people to notice a new product? On the end,and to right
-Bargain! Hot deal!
-Volume decrease versus price increase
-What’s another $__ if I’m already spending $__?
-People spend more when they pay with plastic
Social Facilitation Effect(audience effect)
-Perception of group evaluation is a motivator
***Depends on the task
: if automatic, not difficult, or skill is present: higher performance. If more difficult: lower performance
Promote an open climate
•Allow outsiders into the process
•Assign devil’s advocates
•Use a less authoritarian leadership style
–Consider no formal leader at some points
•**These are difficult to apply and will meet with
resistance at first