Attitudes-Test 2

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skeetyr
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73227
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Attitudes-Test 2
Updated:
2011-03-16 18:36:38
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Attitudes Test
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Attitudes Test 2
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  1. 6-1: Cults initially recruit members by providing an environment where negative emotions
    are expressed.
    False
  2. 6-2: Implicit norms are those that are explicating and verbally expressed.
    False
  3. 6-3: Conformity effects result in agreement with the perceptions of others, even when they go
    against our initial assessment.
    True
  4. 6-4: Studies suggests that the first person to respond in a group has the most influence, but only when the
    overriding purpose is to fulfill social acceptance.
    False
  5. 6-5: When we conform, the second
    and third responder are the most likely to influence us when we are motivated
    to be right.
    True
  6. 6-6: Even when everyone in a group disagrees with us, a single person who speaks up and
    agrees with us will motivate us to hold to our position.
    True
  7. 6-7: Hazing rituals can be cruel, and no research suggests that it helps build cohesiveness.
    False
  8. 6-8: The easier it is to get into a group, the more likely we will go along with group values and
    norms.
    False
  9. 6-9: Ethnocentrism is due to too much emphasis on cohesiveness and identification with the
    group.
    True
  10. 6-10: Males are more likely to
    conform than females.
    False
  11. 6-11: A new corporation faced
    with a highly competitive, volatile, and uncertain environment would benefit
    from a manager with high cognitive complexity.
    True
  12. 6-12: Individualistic cultures tend to be less conforming.
    True
  13. 6-13: Consistency theory suggests that we are more likely to conform with those we like, even when we personally disagree
    True
  14. 6-14: “Social proof” refers to the notion that what is popularly believed is most likely incorrect.
    False
  15. 6-15: Viral marketing operates on
    the principle of social proof.
    True
  16. 6-16: Being excluded from a group
    can lead to overcompensate and go along, making them sometimes easier to
    persuade.
    True
  17. 6-17: “Flaming” another on a blog
    may be due to deindividuation, the increase in an individual’s sense of
    personal identity that occurs in anonymous environments
    False
  18. 6-18: We tend to work harder in groups, particularly when we don’t think others will be able to perceive our
    contribution.
    False
  19. 6-19: Groups tend to exaggerate risk taking and risk avoidance, according to the group polarization phenomenon.
    True
  20. 6-20: Intrapersonal communication (self talk) can lead to increasingly polarized positions due to
    repetition.
    True
  21. 7-21: The meaning of arbitrary symbols does not require any level of agreement
    with others that share the symbol.
    False
  22. 7-22: Charismatic terms are those that normally have clear, agreed-upon definitions.
    False
  23. 7-23: The Elaboration Likelihood
    Model may explain why people tend to rely on peripheral processing when they
    are distracted.
    True
  24. 7-24: We tend to favor those things that are different from our perception of ourselves
    False
  25. 7-25: The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis predicts that how we perceive reality is in some
    ways affected by the language we use.
    True
  26. 7-26: People may use euphemisms
    for saving their own face, but not for saving the face of others
    True
  27. 7-27: It is possible to use intense language, like profanity, without being
    offensive.
    True
  28. 7-28: People are not likely to see a person as less persuasive, likeable, or credible, if they use
    profanity.
    False
  29. 7-29: Vividness in language is not necessarily more persuasive unless the vivid language is pertinent to the message.
    True
  30. 7-30: People are more likely to be persuaded by very intense language if they already agree with the speaker’s position.
    True
  31. 7-31: Highly credible speakers must be more careful to adhere to listener expectations concerning language, compared to less credible speakers.
    False
  32. 7-32: Information Processing Theory would predict that language that is perceived as too intense may result in listeners that attend to less of the message’s content.
    True
  33. 7-33: Communication Accommodation Theory suggests that highly intense and vivid language is most effective with people that use language low in intensity and vividness.
    False
  34. 7-34: Some forms of what is called “powerless language” can be effective with some people in certain contexts.
    True
  35. 7-35: Females using powerless language are more persuasive with males than with females
    True
  36. 8-36: If someone nonverbally disapproval or disbelief of a speaker behind the speaker’s
    back, the speaker’s credibility improves.
    True
  37. 8-37: Nonverbal codes operate in isolation
    False
  38. 8-38: Making eye-contact makes people more persuasive, unless the request is illegitimate, which makes lack of eye-contact more persuasive.
    True
  39. 8-39: A persuader that generates a quick smile or who smiles quite a bit is seen as more persuasive.
    False
  40. 8-40: Mimicking the nonverbal of the one you wish to persuade is likely to make you less persuasive.
    False
  41. 8-41: When we want to be disliked
    or rejected, we may smile when others frown, or frown when they smile
    True
  42. 8-42: Keeping your arms and legs close to your body can make you less persuasive
    True
  43. 8-43: Emblems can increase retention in those we persuade
    True
  44. 8-44: We should avoid illustrators, as they decrease our persuasiveness
    False
  45. 8-45: If we constantly touch ourselves while communicating, we give the impression of confidence and happiness
    False
  46. 8-46: Instrumental NFTs, unlike autotelic NFTs, touch things because they simply like to touch.
    False
  47. 8-47: Being geographically near people is found to increase our attractiveness, persusasiveness, and credibility
    True
  48. 8-48: Expectancy violations theory predicts that we are likely to view minor nonverbal violations as
    positive if the violator is viewed as potentially rewarding, likeable, or attractive
    True
  49. 8-49: The “Scarcity Principle” asserts that if we believe something is scarce, we want it less.
    False
  50. 8-50: The “halo effect” might result in our judging all behaviors of another as positive if we perceive one particularly positive characteristic
    True
  51. 8-51: A study found that overweight males seen eating large meals were perceived as more attractive than overweight males eating small meals
    False
  52. 9-52: A speaker offering explicit
    conclusions uses subtle hints rather than strong behavioral or belief
    statements
    False
  53. 9-53: Most people prefer gain-framed messages over loss-framed messages, even when they are identical in meaning
    True
  54. 9-54: People prefer quality over quantity in arguments, regardless of the type of persuasive message
    False
  55. 9-55: The number of arguments you use is a central route cue
    False
  56. 9-56: A study found that people with very high credibility, persuasiveness is not helped by the use of evidence
    True
  57. 9-57: Repeated exposure to both verbal messages and nonverbal messages increase their likeability, but only if the listeners find the messages relevant
    True
  58. 9-58: The order of our weak and strong arguments is more important for the visual channel than for the auditory channel
    False
  59. 9-59: Primacy is better than recency if, after hearing two back-to-back contrasting messages, there is a considerable delay before you make a decision
    True
  60. 9-60: Motivated people are more vulnerable to primacy effects when messages are chunked
    True
  61. 9-61: You can lessen the strength of opposing arguments by presenting weak versions of them to the listener
    True
  62. 9-62: An inoculation defense is not as effective as a supportive defense
    False
  63. 9-63: Inoculation makes people think of fewer arguments that support their beliefs, making opposing arguments more credible
    False
  64. 9-64: A one-sided argument
    works best for people with little education, and for those that already support
    the belief
    True
  65. 9-65: A persuasive argument that includes both sides, but does not refute opposing arguments, is less effective than presenting one side only
    True
  66. 9-66: Heckling a speaker can make the speaker seem less persuasive
    False
  67. 10-67: Pregiving as a persuasive strategy is effective unless it is not seen as a favor or gift
    True
  68. 10-68: Pregiving is not effective across cultures
    False
  69. 10-69: Research on the
    “foot-in-the-door strategy” has that it works well face-to-face, but not in
    other channels
    False
  70. 10-70: One’s self perception most likely has some effect on the effectiveness of the “foot-in-the-door strategy.”
    True
  71. 10-71: Pregiving and the “foot-in-the-door strategy” are even more effective when combined
    False
  72. 10-72: People that are clearer than others about their self-concept are more susceptible to the “foot-in-the-door strategy.”
    True
  73. 10-73: The “foot-on-the-mouth
    effect” is effective because people wish to be seen as consistent
    True
  74. 10-74: “Door-in-the-face” has found
    very little empirical support
    False
  75. 10-75: The “perceptual contrast effect” may result in students wishing to deliver their speeches after someone better than they believe they are
    False
  76. 10-76:“Reciprocal concessions” means we are motivated to return favors granted to us by others
    True
  77. 10-77: The “foot-in-the-door strategy” and the “door-in-the-face” strategy do not work well if a different person makes the second request
    False
  78. 10-78: The “that’s not all” strategy is similar to the “door-in-the-face” strategy
    True
  79. 10-79: Lowballing is both unethical and not very effective
    False
  80. 10-80: The “fear-then-relief” and “disrupt-then-reframe” techniques are effective because both techniques allow the target individual to make clear decisions based on rational thinking
    False
  81. God Terms
    • powerful words(positive)
    • *unassailable: unchallengable because if you argue against it, wow you are against community outreach ?! well, no, I just want to use the money in a better way.
  82. God, devil, and charismatic terms have most power with people who...
    are NOT centrally concerned with the issue.

    they serve as peripheral shortcuts
  83. Powerless language types

    7 types, what do they all have in common?
    hesitations, hedges, intensifiers, superpolite, tag questions, disclaimers, deictic phrases,

    -all passive tesne
  84. Hesitations
    yes, um, that's correct
  85. Hedges
    Sort of, I guess
  86. Intensifiers
    I really agree with you....very much.
  87. Superpolite forms
    would you please, I'd really appreciate it if
  88. Tag questions
    it's cold, isn't it?
  89. Disclaimers
    I know this is a stupid thing to ask, but...?
  90. Deictic phrases
    that car over there is the one that hit the garden wall
  91. Powerless language gender differences
    Females more persuasive with makes when using powerless language, more persuasive with females when avoiding them
  92. Pragmatic persuaders(6)
    • -central route ELM
    • -Goal: change minds
    • -Fact-based language; concrete terms
    • -Reasoning, logic, "what is" talk
    • -audience resists

    *Pragmatic speakers live in a world of what is, as opposed to many who live in what SHOULD
  93. Unifying Persuaders (4)
    • -peripheral route ELM
    • -Goal: preaching to the choir
    • - Abstract language; references to the "ideal"; "should be" talk; emotional proofs; less reasoning and logic
    • -Audience participates
  94. Sales Persuasion
    • -Which way will you turn when you enter the store? Most is right
    • -How do you get people to notice a new product? On the end,and to right
    • -Bargain! Hot deal!
    • -Volume decrease versus price increase
    • -What’s another $__ if I’m already spending $__?
    • -People spend more when they pay with plastic
  95. Social Facilitation Effect(audience effect)
    2
    • -Perception of group evaluation is a motivator
    • ***Depends on the task: if automatic, not difficult, or skill is present: higher performance. If more difficult: lower performance
  96. Groupthink resistance
    • Promote an open climate
    • •Allow outsiders into the process
    • •Assign devil’s advocates
    • •Use a less authoritarian leadership style
    • –Consider no formal leader at some points
    • •**These are difficult to apply and will meet with
    • resistance at first

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