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What does stress begin with:
Stress begins with a thought
What are some detailed remedies to faulty thinking?
Levels of responding
Rational emotive behavior
When does cognitive distortion occur?
When some thoughts are magnified out of proportion to their seriousness, resulting in excess stress.
What are some examples of cognitive distortions?
All or nothing ( everythings is seen as extreme)
Personalizing ( leads to feelings of needless guilt)
Discounting the positive (feeling the underserving of praise)
Assuming the worst ( pessimism or awfulizing)
What are the intentions of cognitive therapy?
it is to focus on cognitive distortions and relearning thouight process as a way to alter negative emotions, raise self esteem and gain hope for the future.
What are right thinking behaviors?
Accept shades of gray
Assume the best
Accentuate the positive
Refuse to worry
Thinking errors are:
ideas that are inaccurate and irrational and may lead to problems.
What are some cognitive techniques that can help overcome distorted thinking?
Positive self talk ( first step is to become aware of self.talk)
Thought stopping ( outcome is learned optimisim)
Power language ( speaking that helps boost feeling of control, avoid can't or won't)
Going with the flow ( accepting the situation we can't control)
What are the underlying theories:
Conditioned response(becomes automatic)
Levels of responding ( effective responding, ineffective responding)
What are components associated with effective responding?
Gratidute (showing appreciation)
Allowance (embrace what is happening as the way things are and be okay with them)
Discovery ( learning or seeking to understand)
Observation ( act of noticing something without adding anything)
What are components of ineffective responding components?
Attachment ( when we clutch emotionally to ideas, concepts or situations)
Judgment/blamig( mental act of putting a label on something and then trying to make that label the reality)
Resistance ( mental proces of wishing things were different)
What is rational emotive behavior therapy?
it emphisizes replacing defeating , victimizing thoughts and feelings with more accurate and powerful thoughts.
What are the principles associated with the REBT?
You are responsible for your own emotions and actions
Your harmful emotins are product of irrational thinking
You can learn more realistic views
You will experience a deeper acceptance of yourself and greater satisfactions in life developing a reality base prespective
What are two types of difficulties according to REBT?
Practical problems (things that result in feelings of being treated unfairly by others)
What are REBT guidlines:
Id your must
Determine the reality of musts
Upgrade must into preferences
What is the ABCDE process?
Dispute irrational beliefs
What are some negative emotions that can have profound impact on Qof L?
Anger , fear, worry and guilt
What branch of the nervous system would be activated in response to negative emotions ?
What are the two emotions associated with every stressor we perceive?
Guilt and worry
Conscious preoccupation with undesireable past thoughts and behavior. it is an expression of self anger detected by internal dialouge .
Worry is :
A state in which we dwell on something so much it causes us to become apprehensive. Worry is the thinking part of the anxiety and anxiety is psychological and physiological response to worry. manifestation of fear
What are some points in managing worry?
Most things we worry about are out of our control
Worry is not the same as caring
Worry is not the same as planning
Most worries never happen
Move worries from mind to paper
Worry is a habit
State of escalated worry and apprehension that cause distinct physical and emotional reactions. It usually involves a focus on the future and is the single most potent stressful emotion
What are different types of fear
Comfort zone :
Any place , situation where we feel safe and in control. Place, situation,relationship or experience
What are the four principles for managing fear?
Fear can motive positive actions
Nothing in the world is inherently fearful
Fear is learned
With practice and experience we can learn to overcome our fears.
What are strategies for overcoming fear?
Admit you are afraid
Confront your fear
Do whatever you are afraid of at least 3 times
As you confront fear call it something else
What is the factor underlying all of our fears?
Lack of trust in our ability to handle something
Transient emotional support response based on the way one chooses to think about events , usually triggered by perceived by mistreatment. some forms of anger include, sarcasm, silent treatment, abuse, violence.
What are different types of anger?
What are some effects of anger:
increase in cortisol
increase in BP
increase in blood sugar
decreased immune function
insomnia and fatigue
What is the feeling of anger based off of?
based on the perception that what is happening or what might happen or what already happend.
What can venting anger do?
Make you feel worse
Cause situation to esclate
Lead to new problems
where anger is a temporart emotion in response to a specific event, hostility is an attitude motivated by hatefulness and animosity. This is an anger that is projected outward at something or someone. Hostility is very dangerous to heart and maybe good predictor of heart attacks.
Belief upon which one acts by preference. Values guide our actions and give directions and meaning to life. When we place importance on something we cherish we are valuing the trait. they are dynamic and can change as we grow.
What are the two important and powerful ways to gain inner peace and decrease stress are:
Learning to live by them
Stress caused by holding two contradictory feelings simultaneously and result from situations in which our behavior is inconsistant with our values or self-image.
How can dissonance be eliminated:
Reduce importance of the conflicting beliefs
Acquring new beliefs that change the balance
Remove the conflicting attitude
When people don't take a good look at who they are and where they are going.
Pattern of learned behavior based on values beliefs and perceptions of the world.
What are some predominant values in USA?
Personal achievement and success
Activity and work
Efficiancy and practicality
Science and rationality
Everyone has a specific place and purpose
The key is to find your place
The result will be satisfaction
If you try to occupy someone else's place you will be unhappy
What does value acquisition mean:
Consciously assume a new value.
What are the seven steps in value acquisition:
Value is chosen freely
Value is chosen from among alternatives
Value is chosen after careful consideration
Value is cherished
Value is publicly affirmed
Value is acted upon
Value is part of pattern repeated action
What are types of values?
Instrumental: consist of primarily of personal characteristics and character trait. ( ways of triggering terminal values: ambitions,broad minded, clean)
Terminal : outcomes we work toward ( family security)
Process of clarifying and applying what we truly value.
What are the three steps that will guide us in clarifying and applying key values:
Id your value
Write clarifying paragraph for value
What are some differences in spritual people and others?
They have a purpose
They enjoys sense of meaning in life
They also have a broader perspective
* spirituality buffers stress
What is the outcome of spiritual health?
Essence of life principle of a person
Relates a person to the world
Gives meaning to existence
Quest to find meaning and purpose in life
Sence of connection to the higher power
Connected with values that we hold dear
More broad and also include non-religious beliefs
Everyone has spiritual dimensions
Extent of participation in or adherence to the beliefs and practices of an organized religion.
Positive effects that are created when a person merely believes he or she will benefit from an intervention
What are the five qualities of spiritual health:
Sense of meaning and purpose in life
Faith in god or higher power ( belief in and devotion to a higher power beyond the physical relam)
A feeling of connection
Compassion for others ( forgiveness, altruism)
Participation in religious behavior
giving to others without thought or self benefit, it enhances self-esteem
unselfish love that gives of itself and excpects nothing in return.
What are some factors that are critically related to passage of time:
The occurance of events in sequance one after another. omnipresent factor in our lives and howe we spend our time determines our level of sastisfaction.
Manner of controlling the sequence of events in our life
Act of bringing the future into the present so appropriate control can be applied.
In many activities 80% of potential value can be achieved from just 20% effort.
When managing time what are some factors to take into considration:
What are the highest priorities
Which one are valued the most
What can I do about the highest priority
When will I do these things.
What are some methods used for time management:
ABC123( make a list, give value to each item on the list by ABC, prioritize again using 123)
ability to carry out a worthy decision after the emotion of making the decision has passed.
What are some keys to creating balance:
Simplifying( will it matter in 10 years,what do i need more of my life, what do i need less of, how can i make this simpler)
Doing what really matters
Don't just do something
Balancing attitude ( antiplanning: setting goals and being flexible at the same time)
quality that through good fortune and sagacity allows a person to discover something good while seeking something else.
Avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished.
What are styles of procrastination:
Worries (focus on worst case )
Crisis maker ( wait till pressure mounts)
Defires ( resist new tasks)
Overdoers ( make the job harder then it is)
What are some useful tips for overcomming procrastination?
turn elephants into smaller tasks
manage time zappers
work hardest during best times
keep activity log
choose to refuse
establish levels of acceptable perfection
do unpleasant tasks first
use wasted time
enjoy the process
The individual's knowledge that he or she is cared for and loved and belongs to a network.
What are types of social support:
Instrumental ( giving assistance through money)
Emotional ( building esteem)
Informational ( giving advice)
Appraisal ( providing feedback)
What are relationship stressors:
Words of affirmation
Acts of service
Determining love language
What are qualities that support working relationship:
Sense of humor
What are different ways people listen:
Autobiographical listening( listen from perspective of our own experience by probing, evaluating, advising, interperting)
Empathic listening ( active listening with intention and commitment of truly the understanding the other by: mimicing, rephrasing, reflect feeling, rephrasing)
expressed struggle between at least two independent parties who perceive incompatible goals and interference from the other party in achieving their goals.
Standing up for personal rights and expressing thoughts.
What are some styles of conflict resolution:
Accomidation ( cooperative, agreeable)
Competing ( use power, assertive, forceful)
Compromising ( assertive but cooperative, tries bargain)
Person's cognitive interpertation of events is perhaps the most critical aspect in preventing unncecerray and unhealthy stress. most critical aspect of preventing unimportant distress
Mental process that consists of thinking and reasoning skills. rationality, good judgment, allows us to react individually to the same situation.
Our interpretation of stressor which is a deciding factor in our reaction.
Mental act of changing the meaning or our interpertation of the envoronmental stressors in life.
When perception become distorted and magnified our of proportion .
Combination of three personality traits working together to reduce the perception of stress. these terms are commitment, challenge and control.
Locus of control:
Refers to the way we describe our chances of success or failure in a future venture to either internal or external.
Belief in our ability to accomplish a goal.
What is one of the major factors in preventing stress?