Researchers studying cognitive development address three main issues:
What is the typical course of development?
Are there individual differences in cognitive development?
What are the underlying causes of cognitive development?
Three approaches to the study of cognitive development:
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
The Core Knowledge Perspective
Vygotsky's sociocultural approach
Piaget was interested in identifying the _____ of a child's cognitive functioning, asking the question, ______?
What can children do?
mental structures that change with age and allow us to make sense of our experiences
building schemes through interactions with the environment
process by which current schemes are used to interpret new experiences
process by which old schemes are adjusted or new ones created to interpret new experiences
process by which scemes are rearraged and linked
Basic structures and processes of piaget's theory of cognitive development
Four stages of piaget's theory of cognitive development
sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
Preoperational Period (ages 2-7 years)
Concrete Operations Period (ages 7-11)
Formal Operations Period (ages 11+)
In the Sensorimotor stage infants learn through_____
sensory input and motor activity
In the sensorimotor stage infants evolve from random actions and reflexes toward actions that have ____
in the sensorimotor stage infants develop ______
knowing an object still exists when out of sight
understanding cause/effect: one event predicts another event
form a mental representation of someone's behavior and later imitate it
Piaget further subdivided the sensorimotor stage into 6 substages, with infants gradually evolving from _____
newborns with only reflex actions to toddlers with intentional behaviors and the capacity to form mental reprsentations.
in the preoperational stage, rapid development of "representational activity" or symbolic thought, as evidenced by:
comprehension of spatial symbols (spation representation)
in the preoperational period, while advancements in thought are ___ thought is not yet _____. Proof of this includes several limitations in the way they think, particularly at ages 3-4.
limitations of preopertional thought:
inability to take someone else's perspective
attributing human traits to nonhuman things
Stuffed animal is sad for being left home is an example of ___
developing magical explanations for thing they can't understand
In the concrete operations period, thought is more ____
logical and coherent
in the concrete operations period, the limitations of the preoperational stage are now gone, indicating greater logical thinking skills. However, logical though is limited to ______ observations and ____ information.
In the concrete operations period, logical ( though concrete) thought is evidenced by:
knowing that when appearance of something (amount) changes, it is still the same.
understanding hierarchies and categories
putting items in order
putting blocks in order from smallest to largest is an example of_____
distance and directions are an example of ______
mental imge of familiar spaces
limitations of concrete operational thought
logical thought processes only apply to familiar and concrete information
children cannot apply logic to abstract concepts
in the formal operations period, the emergence of _____
abstract, scientific thinking
Formal operations period includes:
start with a general theory and deduce specific hypothesis to be tested
to evaluate the logic of a statement without referring to real-world circumstances
In the formal operations period, more abstract information processing abilities, as reflected in changes in _____ at school.
subject matter (TRIG)
BECAUSE THEY CAN NOW CONSIDER WHAT IS POSSIBLE, THEY MAY PRODUCE IDEAS ABOUT A "PERFECT WORLD"
belief that everyone is watching and evaluating me
belief that i am special and unique, and that bad things won't happen to me (rules don't apply to me)
Limited testing methods and restricted sample resulted in Piaget underestimating the abilities of _____
(e.g. lack of symbolic representation and object permanence in infants)
Preschoolers do not comletely lack logical though, and then sudeenly shift into it at age 7. Rather, this change is ____
slow and gradual
Development may be modified by ____, not discussed by piaget
______% of college students failed piaget's formal operational tasks. Also, formal operational thought never does appear in some cultures.
40 to 60
What is piage credited with?
shaping what we know about cognitive development
What can be traced to piaget's research and conclusions?
methods of developmental research
most influential person in psychological development to date.
Piaget's influences on educational practices
Emphasis on _____ providing a rich variety of activities rather than purely verbal presentations of material.
Piaget's influences on educational practices
Sensitivity to children's _____
readiness to learn
provision of appropriate experiences to build on the child's current level of thinking
readiness to learn
Piaget's influences on educational practices Acceptance of ____: now activites are more tailored to individuals and comparisons are made to the child's own previous abilities rather than those of other children.
The Core knowledge persepective asserts that infants begin life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems called _______
Core domains of knowledge
Core domains of knowledge permit....
a ready grasp of new information and thus supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition.
_______ says that infants would not be capable of processing the vast amount of stimulation around them without being genetically programmed to do so.
core knowledge perspective
Several domains of core knowledge have been identified:
understanding of objects and their effects on one another
the ability to keep track of muiltiple objects and to add and substract small quantities
readiness to develop language at an early age
early orientation toward people and understanding about mental states
ideas about bodily processes and ingeritance of traits
infants as young as _____ noticed when impossible event occurred when with physical objects and with basic counting.
the theor ath children explain an event's cause by drwing on innate concepts and then test their theory against experience, revising it when it cannot adequately account for new information
psychological knowledge of self and others that forms rapidly during the preschool years
theory of mind
most of the explanations offered by preschoolers are ______, _____, or _____ in nature and are appropriately linked to the behaviors of humans, animals, and objects.
physical and psychological explanations are typically prevalent at age _____, whereas ______ explanations emerge more gradually.
one study showed ____ year-olds, but not ____ year-olds, believed they could tell a pain to go away or tell their heart to stop beating.
Regarding knowledge of ingeritance, it is not until ages ____ to ____ that children realize adopted children will physically resemble their birth parents but will resemble their adoptive parents in belief and skills.
The later emergence of biological knowledge has led some researchers to assume it has only weak innate foundations and requires more extensive ______
This perspective has succeeded in explaining how it is possible for some skills to develop so early in life, with minimal experience.
core knowledge perspective
Basic Concepts of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
Social World plays a critical role in facilitating child development
our early interactions with others influence what thought processes we internatlize
Language development is a critical feature in child development
SOICAL INTERACTION IS THE MOST IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTING FACTOR TO COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT.
when we speak to ourselves; kids=out loud
Piage called private speech _______ because he believed young children could not take the perspecitve of others and thus, engage in self-talk with no consideration of whether others can understand it.
Vygotsky disagrred with Piaget, arguing that children's private speech is a means of ______ that provides the children the foundation needed for higher cognitive processes.
Vygotsky also believed that by tuning in to a child's private speech, we can learn about their ______.
Research supports Vygotsky's opinion. Children engage in private speech more:
made a mistake
Children also perform some tasks better when they freely use self-guided speech. Also, children with learning and behavior problems tend to use private speech longer, indicating....
may be compensating for their problems
With increasing age, private speech ______ and is replaced by ______
whispers and later by silent lip movements
the range of tasks a child cannot yet do alone but could with help
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Vygotsky pointed out that parents and teachers should focus their efforts on these tasks. Why?
focus teaching one step agead of current mastery
Ex: reading, tying shoes, potty training...
process in which 2 participants begin a task at different levels and arrie at a shared understanding
teachers and parents attempt to speak and explain things at the child's level, while the child is stretching upward toward a mor emature understanding is an example of ____
adjusting the level of support according to the child's level or need
in scaffolding the greatest level of support or hel is offered ____
at the beggining
In scaffolding support is gradually _____ as the child achieves, until not support is necessary
example of scaffolding
driving, potty training, reading, tying shoes
Vygotsky believed pretend play provided children a unique opportunity to practice a wide variety of skills. He believed it was important in 2 ways:
1. children learn to act in accordance with internal ideas when creating imaginary situations
2. children learn to suppress their impulses and follow the rules of the play scene.
Studies have supported Vygotsky's ideas about make-believe play. Children who engage in more complex make-believe play later followed ______ better.
Make-believe play is also believed to have ____ origins
Vygotsky's Contributions to educational practices:
added aspect of social interaction to the learning environment
assisted discovery and peer collaboration
small group of teacher and 2-4 students for collaborative learning, which includes questionning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting.
students work together toward a common goal; works best with a variety of abilities and ages