PSYC Ch 6 Test 2

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PSYC Ch 6 Test 2
2011-03-16 13:48:10

ch 6 test 2
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  1. Researchers studying cognitive development address three main issues:
    • What is the typical course of development?
    • Are there individual differences in cognitive development?
    • What are the underlying causes of cognitive development?
  2. Three approaches to the study of cognitive development:
    • Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
    • The Core Knowledge Perspective
    • Vygotsky's sociocultural approach
  3. Piaget was interested in identifying the _____ of a child's cognitive functioning, asking the question, ______?
    • quality
    • What can children do?
  4. mental structures that change with age and allow us to make sense of our experiences
  5. building schemes through interactions with the environment
  6. process by which current schemes are used to interpret new experiences
  7. process by which old schemes are adjusted or new ones created to interpret new experiences
  8. process by which scemes are rearraged and linked
  9. Basic structures and processes of piaget's theory of cognitive development
    • schemes
    • adaptation
    • organization
  10. Four stages of piaget's theory of cognitive development
    • sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2)
    • Preoperational Period (ages 2-7 years)
    • Concrete Operations Period (ages 7-11)
    • Formal Operations Period (ages 11+)
  11. In the Sensorimotor stage infants learn through_____
    sensory input and motor activity
  12. In the sensorimotor stage infants evolve from random actions and reflexes toward actions that have ____
  13. in the sensorimotor stage infants develop ______
    • object permanence
    • causality
    • deferred imitation
  14. knowing an object still exists when out of sight
    object permanence
  15. understanding cause/effect: one event predicts another event
  16. form a mental representation of someone's behavior and later imitate it
    deferred imitation
  17. Piaget further subdivided the sensorimotor stage into 6 substages, with infants gradually evolving from _____
    newborns with only reflex actions to toddlers with intentional behaviors and the capacity to form mental reprsentations.
  18. in the preoperational stage, rapid development of "representational activity" or symbolic thought, as evidenced by:
    • language development
    • make-believe play
    • meaningful drawings
    • comprehension of spatial symbols (spation representation)
  19. in the preoperational period, while advancements in thought are ___ thought is not yet _____. Proof of this includes several limitations in the way they think, particularly at ages 3-4.
    • rapid
    • logical
  20. limitations of preopertional thought:
    • egocentrism
    • animism
    • magical thinking
  21. inability to take someone else's perspective
  22. attributing human traits to nonhuman things
  23. Stuffed animal is sad for being left home is an example of ___
  24. developing magical explanations for thing they can't understand
    magical thinking
  25. In the concrete operations period, thought is more ____
    logical and coherent
  26. in the concrete operations period, the limitations of the preoperational stage are now gone, indicating greater logical thinking skills. However, logical though is limited to ______ observations and ____ information.
    • concrete
    • tangible
  27. In the concrete operations period, logical ( though concrete) thought is evidenced by:
    • conservation
    • classification
    • seriation
    • spatial reasoning
    • cognitive maps
  28. knowing that when appearance of something (amount) changes, it is still the same.
  29. understanding hierarchies and categories
  30. putting items in order
  31. putting blocks in order from smallest to largest is an example of_____
  32. distance and directions are an example of ______
    spatial reasoning
  33. mental imge of familiar spaces
    cognitive maps
  34. limitations of concrete operational thought
    • logical thought processes only apply to familiar and concrete information
    • children cannot apply logic to abstract concepts
  35. in the formal operations period, the emergence of _____
    abstract, scientific thinking
  36. Formal operations period includes:
    • hypothetico-deductive reasoning
    • propositional thought
    • egocentrism
    • idealism
    • imaginary audience
    • personal fable
  37. start with a general theory and deduce specific hypothesis to be tested
    hypothetico-deductive reasoning
  38. to evaluate the logic of a statement without referring to real-world circumstances
    propostitional thought
  39. In the formal operations period, more abstract information processing abilities, as reflected in changes in _____ at school.
    subject matter (TRIG)
  41. belief that everyone is watching and evaluating me
    imaginary audience
  42. belief that i am special and unique, and that bad things won't happen to me (rules don't apply to me)
    personal fable
  43. Limited testing methods and restricted sample resulted in Piaget underestimating the abilities of _____
    • infants
    • (e.g. lack of symbolic representation and object permanence in infants)
  44. Preschoolers do not comletely lack logical though, and then sudeenly shift into it at age 7. Rather, this change is ____
    slow and gradual
  45. Development may be modified by ____, not discussed by piaget
    cultural experiences
  46. ______% of college students failed piaget's formal operational tasks. Also, formal operational thought never does appear in some cultures.
    40 to 60
  47. What is piage credited with?
    shaping what we know about cognitive development
  48. What can be traced to piaget's research and conclusions?
    methods of developmental research
  49. most influential person in psychological development to date.
  50. Piaget's influences on educational practices

    Emphasis on _____ providing a rich variety of activities rather than purely verbal presentations of material.
    discover learning
  51. Piaget's influences on educational practices

    Sensitivity to children's _____
    readiness to learn
  52. provision of appropriate experiences to build on the child's current level of thinking
    readiness to learn
  53. Piaget's influences on educational practices

    Acceptance of ____: now activites are more tailored to individuals and comparisons are made to the child's own previous abilities rather than those of other children.
    individual difference
  54. The Core knowledge persepective asserts that infants begin life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems called _______
    Core domains of knowledge
  55. Core domains of knowledge permit....
    a ready grasp of new information and thus supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition.
  56. _______ says that infants would not be capable of processing the vast amount of stimulation around them without being genetically programmed to do so.
    core knowledge perspective
  57. Several domains of core knowledge have been identified:
    • physical knowledge
    • numerical knowledge
    • liguistic knowledge
    • psychological knowledge
    • biological knowledge
  58. understanding of objects and their effects on one another
    physical knowledge
  59. the ability to keep track of muiltiple objects and to add and substract small quantities
    numerical knowledge
  60. readiness to develop language at an early age
    liguistic knowledge
  61. early orientation toward people and understanding about mental states
    psychological knowledge
  62. ideas about bodily processes and ingeritance of traits
    biological knowledge
  63. infants as young as _____ noticed when impossible event occurred when with physical objects and with basic counting.
    5 months.
  64. the theor ath children explain an event's cause by drwing on innate concepts and then test their theory against experience, revising it when it cannot adequately account for new information
  65. psychological knowledge of self and others that forms rapidly during the preschool years
    theory of mind
  66. most of the explanations offered by preschoolers are ______, _____, or _____ in nature and are appropriately linked to the behaviors of humans, animals, and objects.
    • psychological
    • physical
    • biological
  67. physical and psychological explanations are typically prevalent at age _____, whereas ______ explanations emerge more gradually.
    • 2
    • biological
  68. one study showed ____ year-olds, but not ____ year-olds, believed they could tell a pain to go away or tell their heart to stop beating.
    • 3
    • 4
  69. Regarding knowledge of ingeritance, it is not until ages ____ to ____ that children realize adopted children will physically resemble their birth parents but will resemble their adoptive parents in belief and skills.
    • 5
    • 7
  70. The later emergence of biological knowledge has led some researchers to assume it has only weak innate foundations and requires more extensive ______
  71. This perspective has succeeded in explaining how it is possible for some skills to develop so early in life, with minimal experience.
    core knowledge perspective
  72. Basic Concepts of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
    • Social World plays a critical role in facilitating child development
    • our early interactions with others influence what thought processes we internatlize
    • Language development is a critical feature in child development
  73. when we speak to ourselves; kids=out loud
    private speech
  74. Piage called private speech _______ because he believed young children could not take the perspecitve of others and thus, engage in self-talk with no consideration of whether others can understand it.
    egocentric speech
  75. Vygotsky disagrred with Piaget, arguing that children's private speech is a means of ______ that provides the children the foundation needed for higher cognitive processes.
    self direction
  76. Vygotsky also believed that by tuning in to a child's private speech, we can learn about their ______.
    cognitive processes
  77. Research supports Vygotsky's opinion. Children engage in private speech more:
    • difficult task
    • confused
    • made a mistake
  78. Children also perform some tasks better when they freely use self-guided speech. Also, children with learning and behavior problems tend to use private speech longer, indicating....
    may be compensating for their problems
  79. With increasing age, private speech ______ and is replaced by ______
    • declines
    • whispers and later by silent lip movements
  80. the range of tasks a child cannot yet do alone but could with help
    Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
  81. Vygotsky pointed out that parents and teachers should focus their efforts on these tasks. Why?
    focus teaching one step agead of current mastery

    Ex: reading, tying shoes, potty training...
  82. process in which 2 participants begin a task at different levels and arrie at a shared understanding
  83. teachers and parents attempt to speak and explain things at the child's level, while the child is stretching upward toward a mor emature understanding is an example of ____
  84. adjusting the level of support according to the child's level or need
  85. in scaffolding the greatest level of support or hel is offered ____
    at the beggining
  86. In scaffolding support is gradually _____ as the child achieves, until not support is necessary
  87. example of scaffolding
    driving, potty training, reading, tying shoes
  88. Vygotsky believed pretend play provided children a unique opportunity to practice a wide variety of skills. He believed it was important in 2 ways:
    • 1. children learn to act in accordance with internal ideas when creating imaginary situations
    • 2. children learn to suppress their impulses and follow the rules of the play scene.
  89. Studies have supported Vygotsky's ideas about make-believe play. Children who engage in more complex make-believe play later followed ______ better.
    classroom rules
  90. Make-believe play is also believed to have ____ origins
  91. Vygotsky's Contributions to educational practices:
    • assited discovery
    • peer collaboration
    • reciprocal teaching
    • cooperative learning
  92. added aspect of social interaction to the learning environment
    assisted discovery and peer collaboration
  93. small group of teacher and 2-4 students for collaborative learning, which includes questionning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting.
    reciprocal teaching
  94. students work together toward a common goal; works best with a variety of abilities and ages
    cooperative learning