Biology Lec Vocab

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Biology Lec Vocab
2010-02-18 18:35:04
biology vocab words

bio lecture vocabulary words
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  1. Deductive Reasoning
    Using logic to arrive at a specific conclusions based on a premise. Progressing from general evidence to a particular truth.
  2. Inductive Reasoning
    Using specific observations and measurements to arrive at a conclusion. Progressing from particular observations to arrive at a general principle. Alternative medicine is an example of this kind of reasoning. A certain disease is cured by acupuncture. Therefore acupuncture always cures the disease.
  3. Hypothesis
    A proposed explanation for a set of observations.
  4. Scientific Method
    Way of gathering data, formulating hypotheses, models, theories, and laws.
  5. Enzymes
    Any of numerous proteins or conjugated proteins produced by living organisms and functioning as biochemical catalysts.
  6. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
    A nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions.
  7. Oxidation
    Any chemical reaction in which a material gives up electrons, as when the material combines with oxygen. Burning is an example of rapid oxidation; rusting is an example of slow oxidation.
  8. Reduction
    Any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen); always occurs accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent.
  9. Anabolism
    Metabolic process that synthesizes large molecules from smaller molecules; requires an input of energy; energy currency of the cell.
  10. Catabolism
    Destructive metabolism; the breaking down in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones, with the release of energy.
  11. Biomolecules
    An organic molecule and especially a macromolecule (as a protein or nucleic acid) in living organisms.
  12. Homeostasis
    The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
  13. Feedback
    A self-regulatory biological system, as in the synthesis of some hormones, in which the output or response affects the input, either positively or negatively.
  14. Cell
    The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane.
  15. Plasma Membrane
    A thin membrane (a double layer of lipids surrounding a protein layer) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell.
  16. White Blood Cell(Also called Leukocyte, White Cell, White Corpuscle)
    Any of various blood cells that have a nucleus and cytoplasm that separate into a thin white layer when whole blood is centrifuged, and help protect the body from infection and disease. White blood cells include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
  17. Red Blood Cells
    Cells that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and tissues.
  18. E- Cadherin
    Membrane-spanning proteins that link cells together.
  19. Microtubules
    Any of the proteinaceous cylindrical hollow structures that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, providing structural support and assisting in cellular locomotion and transport.
  20. Nucleus
    A specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters; organizing center of the cell.
  21. Rough ER
    Part of the endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached that functions in protein synthesis.
  22. Smooth ER
    Parts of endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes with varying functions from cell to cell and include steroid hormone synthesis, and storage of ions.
  23. Golgi Comlex
    Set of flattened sac like membranes that function in the packaging and processing of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
  24. Mitochondria
    The energy(ATP) producing organelle of cells.
  25. Intracellular Fluid
    Liquid contained inside the cell membranes (usually containing dissolved solutes).
  26. Interstitial Fluid
    Liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body.
  27. Extracellular Fluid
    Liquid containing proteins and electrolytes including the liquid in blood plasma and interstitial fluid.