BIO SET 3

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cooxcooxbananas
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73285
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BIO SET 3
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2011-03-17 14:51:09
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bio set 3
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  1. What are some inhibitors of photosynthesis electrontransport?
    DCMU - steals electrons, blocks transport from PSII to PQ

    Atrazine (Herbicide) - Block transport from PSII to PQ

    DCIP - Artifical electron Acceptor, steals electrons from PQ

    Paraquat - "steals" electrons from PSI so NADP+ is not reduced to NADPH (Herbicide)
  2. Why does atrazine kill plants and not us?
    We don't have PSII in our e transport.
  3. To make ATP in chloroplasts, what three things do you have to do first?
    • Set up electron transport
    • Use electron transport to set up the proton gradient
    • Use proton gradient to makeatp
  4. Could you make ATP from electron transport energy alone?
    No
  5. Could you make ATP from the proton gradient alone?
    yes
  6. Do you need electron transport to make ATP in vivo?
    Yes
  7. Do you need electron transport to make ATP in vitro?
    No
  8. Can ATP be made by protons flowing in the CF1 to the CF0?
    no, only when the proons goes throught the CF0 to the CF1
  9. How can you make ATP in vitro?
    • 1. put thylakoid membranes in pH=4.0
    • 2. Wait until pH=4.0 on the inside (load up on H+ inside because the pHs on both sides will equilibrize.
    • 3. Move thylakoids to pH=7.0 and add ADP+Pi (high pH inside and low outside) it will go to equilibirze by flowing protons outward, only now creating ATP because it is moving in the correct direction.
  10. What provides the energy for ATP synthesis in vivo?
    sunlight, electron transport, proton gradient
  11. What provides the energy for ATP synthesis in vitro?
    The protein gradient alone
  12. Is e transport necessary for ATP synthesis in vitro?
    no
  13. Is e transport necessary for ATP synthesis in vivo?
    yes
  14. What are five different things that can happen to light after it hits a pigment?
    • absorbed and emmited as heat
    • Emmited as fluorescence (emited at a longer wavelength)
    • transmit it (just goes by) (no change in wavelength)
    • Passed along to another energy carrier (thats what chloroplasts want)
    • Reflect it (colors are reflected)
  15. Why are isolated pigments (like cholorphyll) fluorescent but chloroplasts aren't?
    live cholorplasts want to pass their fluorescence along, dead chloroplasts just keep the fluorescence.
  16. If a plant absorbs will at a wavelength it is...
    it is taking it in.
  17. If a plant is not absorbing well at a wavelength is is...
    Reflecting it
  18. High energy, short wavelength color is ...
    Blue
  19. Low energy, long wavelength color is..
    Red
  20. Which wavelengths are absorbed best by the pigments?
    The wavelenths with the highest absorbance.
  21. If you shine a green light on green plants what will happen to the plants?
    They will die. They do not absorb well in green light
  22. To pass on a wavelength you need to be able to...
    absorb it.
  23. What is chlorophyll?
    A pigment
  24. What color is carotene?
    Orange
  25. Which wavelengths are absorbed by carotene
    anything but orange
  26. The force to move the proton gradient across the membrane provides the energy to make ATP, this is dependent on...
    Membrane Potential

    Proton gradient
  27. What is membrane potential?
    The electrical driving force
  28. What is the proton gradient?
    Chemical driving force
  29. pmf equation
    pmf = membrane potential - constant (proton gradient *change in pH*)
  30. If the membrane potential is relatively constant, the pmf is mainly controlled by the ....
    Proton gradient
  31. What is electrophoresis?
    The movement of fully charged (ionic) compounds through a viscous medium by an electric field.
  32. Compounds must be _____ charged to perform electrophoresis.
    fully
  33. Anode is the _____ pole
    Positive
  34. Anode attracts the ...
    anion (negative ion)
  35. Cathode is the _______ pole
    Negative
  36. Cathode attracts the ..
    Cation (positive ion)
  37. Electrophoresis can be used to...
    Separate, purify and identify proteins, RNA, DNA (or anything that can be charged)
  38. what are the two main types of electrophoresis?
    Native gels

    Detergents
  39. Native gel characteristics:
    • No detergent added
    • Migration is affected by native shape (conformation), size, solubility and charge
  40. Would pH affect native migration?
    It could if it titrated a charge and changed the shape
  41. Explain how a proteins four main characteristics could affect it's migration in electrophoresis?
    The shape - if it's thin or fat, will affect the movement

    Size- bigger protein will take a longer time to get to it's respective pole, the smaller one will be faster

    Solubility - If it's not soluble it is not going to move

    Charge - affect in which direction and how fast it'll move.
  42. Detergent gel characteristics
    The detergent is usually SDS

    Detergent added to sample AND gel

    Migration only due to size
  43. The SDS structure is...
    Negatively charged headgroup with a hydrophobic tail
  44. SDS is an anionic _______
    Detergent
  45. SDS-PAGE seperates proteins on the basis of their....
    size
  46. When dealing with SDS-PAGE assume that all of the proteins are ______ and ________ charged and soluble in the presence of SDS
    denatured

    negatively
  47. When there is no detergent present proteins can be...
    a mess (protein charges could be negative, positive or zero, be in native conformation, depending on pH)
  48. SDS is an anionic detergent that solubilizes and coats all proteins with a ______ charge.
    Negative
  49. PAGE means...
    Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
  50. In the presense of SDS, all proteins migrate toward the ________ pole because there are all _______.
    Positive

    Negative
  51. in SDS-PAGE proteins of the same size move ....
    together through the gel in a band
  52. in SDS Page large proteins move ______ and end up near the ____ of the gel
    • slower
    • top
  53. in SDS Page small proteins move ______ and end up near the ____ of the gel
    • faster
    • bottom
  54. in SDS-Page, protein bands have to be ______ to be seen.
    stained
  55. The protein bands is SDS-PAGE are stained to be seen and identified by ________ with known standards. (known molecular weights)
    co-migration.
  56. size in SDS-PAGE is expressed as..
    Daltons (Da)
  57. 1 kDA = ______ Daltons
    1,000 = molecular weight
  58. 50 kDa = _______ Daltons
    50,000 = molecular weight

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