Bio16 Ch.10

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Bio16 Ch.10
2011-03-16 16:34:26

Bio16 Ch.10 Flascards
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  1. Acidosis
    Excessive accumulation of acids in body fluids
  2. Aldosterone
    Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that decreases sodium and increases potassium excretion; raises blood volume and pressure
  3. Alkalosis
    excessive accumulation of bases in body fluids
  4. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary that increases the permeability of the collecting ducts in a kidney
  5. aquaporin
    Protein membrane channel through which water can diffuse
  6. atrial natriuetic hormone (ANH)
    hormone secreted by the heart that increases sodium excretion and, therefore, lowers blood volume and pressure.
  7. buffer
    substance or group of substances that tend to resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its relative acidity and basicity
  8. collecting duct
    duct within the kidney that receives fluid from several nephrons; the reabsorption of water occurs here
  9. creatinine
    nitrogenous waste; the end product of creatine phosphate metabolism
  10. cystitis
    inflammation of the urinary bladder
  11. diabetes insipidus
    condition casued by deficiency of antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary gland, characterized by excessive urination
  12. diabetes mellitus
    condition characerized by a high blood glucose level and the appearance of glucose in the urine, due to a deficiency of insulin production and failure of cells to take up glucose
  13. dialysate
    material that passes through the membrane in dialysis
  14. distal convoluted tubule
    final portion of a nephron that joins with a collecting duct; associated with tubular secretion
  15. diuretic
    drug used to counteract hypertension by causing the excretion of water
  16. erythropietin
    hormone, produced by the kidneys, that speeds red blood cell formation
  17. excretion
    removal of metabolic wastes from the body
  18. floating kidney
    kidney that has been dislodged from its normal position
  19. glomerular capsule
    double-walled cup that surrounds the glomerulus at the beginning of the nephron
  20. glomerular filtrate
    filtered portion of blood contained within the glomerular capsule
  21. glomerular filtration
    movement of small moelcules from the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule due to the action of blood pressure
  22. glomerulus
    cluster; for example, the cluster of capillaries surrounded by the glomerular capsule in a nephron, where glomerular filtration takes place
  23. gout
    joint inflammation caused by accumulation of uric acid
  24. hemodialysis
    cleansing of blood by using an artificial membrane that causes substances to diffuse from blood into a dialysis fluid.
  25. juxtaglomerular apparatus
    structure located in the walls of arterioles near the glomerulus; regulates renal blood flow
  26. kidney
    organ in the urinary system that produces and excretes urine
  27. loop of the nephron
    portion of the nephron lying between the proximal convoluted tubule and the distal convoluted tubule that functions in water reabsorption
  28. micturition
    emptying of the bladder; urination
  29. nephron
    microscopic kidney unit that regulates blood composition by golmerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion
  30. pertitubular capillary network
    capillary network that surrounds a nephron and functions in reabsorption during urine formation
  31. proximal convoluted tubule
    highly coiled region of a nephron near the glomerular capsule, where tubular reabsorption takes place
  32. pyelonephritis
    inflammation of the kidney due to bacterial infection
  33. renal artery
    vessel that originates from the aorta and delivers blood to the kidney
  34. renal cortex
    outer portion of the kidney that appears granular
  35. renal medulla
    inner portion of the kidney that consists of neral pyramids
  36. renal pelvis
    hollow chamber in the kidney that lies inside the renal medulla and receives freshly prepared urine from the collecting ducts.
  37. renal vein
    vessel that takes blood from the kidney to the inferior vena cava
  38. renin
    enzyme released by the kidneys that leads to the secretion of aldosterone and a rise in blood pressure
  39. tubular reabsorption
    movement of primarily nutrient molecules and water fro the contents of the nephron into blood at the proximal convoluted tubule
  40. tubular secretion
    movement of certain molecules from blood into the distal convoluted tubule of a nephron so that they are added to urine
  41. urea
    primary nitrogenous waste of humans derived from amino acid breakdown
  42. uremia
    high level of urea nitrogen in the blood
  43. ureter
    one of two tubes that take urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
  44. urethra
    tubular structure that receives urine from the bladder and carries it to the outside of the body
  45. urethritis
    inflammation of the urethra
  46. uric acid
    waste product of nucleotide metabolism
  47. urinary bladder
    organ where urine is stored before being discharged by the way of the urethra