Pharm Exam 2 Review
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t/f nitrous is used for conscious sedation and general anesthesia
True (yes I know how to make true questions too but false is so much more fun)
when using nitrous for conscious sedation ____% oxygen is administered for __ to __ minutes, then slowly adding ____ at ___% increments.
What is the MAX nitrous/oxygen combo for conscious sedation?
what is done at the end of the appointment to clear a patient of nitrous during conscious sedation?
nitrous is slowly reduced and 100% oxygen is given for 5 minutes
What is the recommeded dose of gas/oxygen combination for conscious sedation? (think think is it a %...maybe)
it is variable according to the pt response
What is the % of nitrous/oxygen for induction for general anesthesia?
what is the % of nitrous/oxygen for maintenance during general anesthesia?
The side effects of nitrous oxide are ____, ____, _____ and _______ (I don't feel so well I think I am going to lose my lunch but wait what did I eat for lunch?? Thud hits floor end scene appluase applause)
General anesthesia induces generalized _____ depression of the _____ and what is it characterized by? 3
- Loss of consciousness
What are the four stages of general anesthesia
- Stage I-Induction
- Stage II-Excitation or Delirium
- Stage III-Surgical anethesia
- Stage IV-Respiratory and medullary paralysis
what stage of genral anesthesia does the pt have a reduced senation to pain while still being conscious and able to respond to commands, with reflexes and respiration as normal.
what stage in general anesthesia is characterized by excitaion, muscle twitching, vomitin and incontinence. Is this stage desirable?
- Stage II
- NO want to limit orr abolish
what stage of general anesthesia are most surgerys performed?
what stage of general anesthesia is respiratory depression, cardiac arrest and death?
Light sedation to relax the patient who can respond to situations and questions
generalized, reversible depression of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness, amnesia and immobility but not necessarily compete anesthesia
the fromation of blood or blond cells in the living body (bone marrow)
nitrous oxide mixed with oxygen
what is the most commonly inhaled anestehtic?
what is an example of a short acting barbituate and what does it do?
- used to move through stage 2 quickly
what intravenous general anesthetic provides a rapid indcution and recover, is metabolized rapidly in the liver and can cause adrenal suppression after repeated exposures?
what intravenous genral anesthetic is rapidly acting used for induction as an antiemetic and for sedation and has a rapid recovery time?
what is the safest of general anesthetics?
t/f ketamine is mainly used by general dentists
false! mainly used by oral surgeons not general dentists
what are three indications for using benzodiazepines?
- calm pt
- amnesiac effect
what are three examples of benzodiazepines (now jackie don't cheat ya gotta think :P) think AM
- diazepam (valium)
- lorazepam (antivan)
- midazolam (versed)
morphine, meperidine, fentanyl and remifentanil are examples of what analgesic drugs?
t/f nitrous goes through the blood and is metabolized by the liver
FALSE excreted 100% by exhalation
what are the five NEW induction agents? (think -ANE)
- Enflurane and isoflurane
- Desflurane and Sevoflurane
which new induction agent is widely used for general anesthetic and has cardiovascular effects
what two new induction agents have a greater risk for renal toxicity
enflurane and isoflurane
what two new induction agents are more potent than nitrous oxide, fast induction and recovery times similar to nitrous?
desflurane and sevoflurane
the role of nitrous in the dental office is to have a lightly _____ and ______ patient who can respond to _____ and ____
- sedated and relaxed
- situations and questions
what are the four effects of nitrous
- pt remains conscious
- protective reflexes are intact
- relief of anxiety
what is the objective of sedation in the dental office?
generalized, reversible depression of the CNS characterized by loss of consciousness, amnesia and immobility
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