earth science test 3

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moon23
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73326
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earth science test 3
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2011-03-21 09:56:16
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mrs.lowes class
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  1. what is the hydrologic cycle?
    refers to the flow or movement of h2o through the enviornment.
  2. what is hydrology?
    study of the earths water "called hydrosphere"
  3. 97.2% refers to what in earths hydrocycle?
    ocean/ salt h2o
  4. 2.8% refers to what in the hydrocycle?
    fresh water h2o
  5. out of the 2.8% of fresh water in the earths hydrocycle what % comes from glaciers,snow, and ice. and what % is available supply fresh?
    • 2.15% is snow
    • 0.65% is supply
  6. out of the 0.65% of available supply fresh h2o . what % is ground water and what % is surface lakes, stream, rivers, and ponds
    • .62% ground water
    • .03% streams,lakes,ponds, and rivers
  7. whats the difference between a pond and a lake?
    • ponds= light pentrates to the bottom, it has vegeation on the bed and shallow
    • lakes= light dose not pentrate to the bottom, no vegeation on the bed and deep. they are both standing water
  8. what are the three movements of flow of water in the hydro cycle.
    • 1. evaporation
    • 2.sublimation
    • 3. transpiration
  9. define evaporation as it refers to the hydro cycle.
    water entering the atmosphere due to solar heating of surface waters
  10. define sublimation as it refers to the hydro cycle
    water entering the atmosphere due to solar heating os snow and ice covered surfaces
  11. define transpiration as it refers to the hydro cycle
    water entering the atmosphere from vegation=plant life
  12. how dose water move through the atmosphere name all 4
    • 1.condensation
    • 2. precipitation
    • 3. infiltration
    • 4. runoff
  13. define condensation as it refers to the water moving through the atmosphere
    when water vapors form tiny droplets making clouds
  14. define precipitation as it refers to the water moving through the atmosphere
    when water droplets fall in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail
  15. define infiltration as it refers to water moving through the atmosphere
    is when a portion of water soaks into the ground
  16. define runoff as it refers to water moving through the atmosphere
    is when water flowing over the surface into the ground water- rivers,lakes
  17. what is the #1 sculpting agent on earth and how dose it do its job
    running water- by cutting, moving, dumping, and scraping.
  18. define velocity
    speed in any given direction
  19. list the three reasons water is the #1 sculpting agent
    • 1. gradient
    • 2. discharge
    • 3. characterics
  20. define gradient
    is the verticle drop of a stream channel over a given distant
  21. define discharge
    volume of water that passes a point in a unit of time.
  22. define characterics as it refers to water being the #1 scultping agent
    size, shape, roughness
  23. what is the largest river in the world and its gradient
    amazon and 7.5 million
  24. what is the 2nd largest river in the world and its gradient
    congo and 1.5 million
  25. what is the largest river in north america
    the mississippi
  26. what are the three works of running water
    • 1. erosion
    • 2. transportation
    • 3. deposition
  27. define erosion
    phyical removal of rock and sediments
  28. list and define the three agents of erosion
    • 1. dissolution- running water is phyically removing souble minerals/ sediments
    • 2. adrasion- scratch, scrap, scour, minerals sediments away
    • 3. hydraulic action- pound, smash, break sediments down
  29. define load
    load is whats carried away from erosion
  30. define the three agents of transportation
    • 1. dissolved load- soluble minerals
    • 2. suspended load- fine particles, silt,sand,clay
    • 3.bed load- (bottom) skip, roll,slide,bounce
  31. deifne deposition
    it occurs at the mouth or blocked or gradient levels off where the stream slows down
  32. what does sorted sediments show
    graded bedding
  33. what is/does alluvium show
    sorted sediments having graded bedding with particles decrease from bottom to the top
  34. what is delta
    forms at the mouth of a river and is a triangle shape.
  35. what is a natural levees
    natural walls along banks of rivers they are paraellel to the river
  36. what are the 2 speeds water can have
    • 1. laminar flow- slow peaceful flow
    • 2. turbulent flow- fast flow rapids, whirlpools, waterfalls,and whitewater
  37. define latent heat
    when the heat used to melt ice dose not produce a temperature change ie-hidden
  38. define calorie as it refers to latent heat
    is the amount of heat required to raIse the temperature of 1 gram of water 1*c (1*8.F)
  39. what is the total calories for sublimation
    680
  40. how many calories of latent heat dose it take to melt a solid and how many to freeze a liquid
    80
  41. how many calories of latent heat dose it take to turn a liquid to gas and how many to turn a gas to a liquid
    600
  42. what are the 3 zones of ground water
    • 1. unstaturated zone
    • 2.water table
    • 3. staturated zone
  43. define unstaturated zone
    spaces between your rock and sediments that are dry
  44. define water table
    is the boundery seperating the two zones
  45. define staturated zone
    spaces between rock and sediments are filled with water
  46. layers in the ground are refered to as what two things
    • 1. aquifer
    • 2. aquitard
  47. define aquifer
    permable and porous= water goes through,sandy sediments/sandstone (ideal)
  48. define aquitard
    impermable and non-porous= water do not go through, clay + shale (not ideal)
  49. define artesian well
    water raises itself where it was initally drilled
  50. define spring
    • is where groundwater flows to the surface where watertable intersects that surface
    • spring can be cold or hot
    • a hot spring would be 6-9*c
  51. define geyers
    • is where groundwater flowing under great pressure and forced to the surface
    • "to gush"
  52. what is the formula for mild acid rain
    co2 + h20= h2co3
  53. whats under florida
    calcite / calcium cardonate
  54. define cavern
    is a cavity that forms in bedrock (like limestone) from dissoultion by acidic ground water
  55. define stalactite
    icicle-like pendants that form on the celing of caverns
  56. define stalgmites
    icicle-like pendants that form on the ground of caverns
  57. define sinkhole and how they form
    when the ground collapses from a cavern with to much gone
  58. what regions topgarphy in china is characterzied by collapsing caverns
    Karst
  59. define salinity
    refers to the total amount of solid material dissolved in water
  60. how is average salinity expressed
    AVG=35 %0 at surface
  61. define how salinity varies and define how
    latitude and depth north to south salinity decreases at low latitudes rate of prcip exceeds rate of evaporation
  62. define the three zones in the ocean
    • 1. surface zone
    • 2. transition zone
    • 3. deep zone
  63. what depth is the surface zone
    .5 km
  64. what depth is the transtition zone
    1.5 km
  65. what depth is the deep zone
    3.9-4 km
  66. define thermocline and where dose it occur
    change in temp that drops with deepth in the transtion zone
  67. define halocline and where dose it occur
    change in salt that drops with the deepth in the transition zone
  68. define pycnocline and where dose it occur
    a change in density when raising in the transition zone
  69. define room temp and where can you fine it on earth
    20*c/68*f in the atomosphere
  70. what years did the H.M.S Challenger sail the sea
    dec 1872- may 1876
  71. 3 1/2 years later the challenger had sailed all the seas except one which one
    artic sea
  72. what did this study of the ocean floor topgraphy show
    that it is as varied as the continents topgraphy
  73. define abyss
    it means nothing = very level and flat

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