Genitourinary Path

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Genitourinary Path
2011-03-16 21:43:19

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  1. Ectopic Kidney
    abnormally positioned kidney
  2. Horseshoe Kidney
    kidneys are malrotated and fused at lower poles
  3. Ureterocele
    cystic dilation of the distal ureter
  4. Cystitis
    • inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by bacterial infection
    • Radiographic Appearance: excretory urography demonstrates decreases bladder size and irregularity of bladder wall with chronic cystitis
  5. Renal Colic
    • very severe pain that can present suddenly and without warning usually caused by stones in the kidney, renal pelvis, or ureter
    • pain is caused by dilatation, stretching and spasm of the ureter
    • haematuria (blood in the urine) is often present
  6. Renal Calculi
    • asymptomatic until they lodge in a ureter and cause partial obstruction
    • Radiographic Appearance: 80% of renal stones contain enough calcium to be radiopaque; dilatation of renal pelvis and calyces and ureters will occur to point of obstruction
  7. Hydronephrosis
    • dilatation of renal pelvis and calyces caused by obstruction
    • caused by calculi in ureter, urethral strictures, pelvic tumors and enlarged prostate
    • bilateral hydronephrosis is most often indicative of obstruction at the base of urinary bladder or urethra
  8. Renal Cyst
    • fluid filled mass, usually unilocular
    • Radiographic Appearance: IVU performed shows radiopaque rim surrounding lucent cyst "beak sign"
  9. Polycystic Kidney Disease
    • inherited disorder in which multiple cysts or varying size cause lobulated enlargement of kidneys and progressive renal impairment
    • Radiographic Appearance: IVU would demonstrate enlarged kidney and mottled presence of multiple lucent lesions
  10. Nephroblastoma
    • malignant tumor usually presenting before five years of age and becomes large, palpable mass
    • lesion arises from embryonic renal tissue
    • Radiographic Appearance: IVU would demonstrate displacement of kidney inferiorly and laterally
  11. Bladder Carcinoma
    • originates in the epithelium, usually seen in men more than 50 years of age
    • Radiographic Appearance: linear calcifications of tumor may show in KUB exam
  12. Neurogenic Bladder
    • bladder dysfunction caused by neurologic damage
    • primary symptom is overflow incontinence
    • risk of serious complications is high
    • diagnosis involves imaging and cystoscopy or urodynamic testing
  13. Vesicoureteral Reflux
    • abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back into the ureters (most common in children)
    • can cause swelling in the ureter and kidney, known as hydroureter and hydronephrosis
    • infection is the most common symptom
    • Radiographic Appearance: more than one of the following tests may be needed - voiding cystourethrogram, intravenous pyelogram, kidney and bladder ultrasound, CT, nuclear scans
  14. Vesicovaginal Fistula
    • abnormal connection between the urinary tract and the vagina
    • can be caused by injury to the urinary tract
  15. Renovascular Hypertension
    • high blood pressure due to renal artery stenosis cause by arteriosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia
    • Radiographic Appearance: CT angiogram for assessment