Chapter 5 Notes (SCIENCE).txt

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emilybrooke082690
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73396
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Chapter 5 Notes (SCIENCE).txt
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2011-03-17 00:16:10
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Science
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Chapter 5 Notes for Science Test 2
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  1. Who is John Dewey and contributions to education?
    • American educator and philosopher
    • did not believe teachers should teach concepts and facts through lectures
    • science as practice
    • involving inquiry skills into investigation and research
  2. Strand 1: Understanding Scientific Explanations
    • learning the facts, theories, laws, and other concepts that are a part of science
    • apply knowledge in new ways such as when you develop an extended concept
  3. Strand 1: Understanding Scientific Explanations

    6E MODEL Application
    we would engage the class and explore a topic but then take ample time for students to explain and make connections guided them as needed. plan many more explorations and related elaborations before going on to a new idea. implications for assessment.
  4. Strand 2: Generating Scientific Evidence
    • use scientific skills during an inquiry investigation
    • design and analyze an empirical investigation
    • collect data, analyze data, and change our understanding or create an argument to defend our understanding
  5. Strand 2: Generating Scientific Evidence

    6E MODEL Application
    plan ways for children to engage in data collection and then use that date in support of explanation. engagements and elaborations that allow children to design their own investigations and collect data based on own questions. learner is engaged in own scientifically oriented questions = learner self-direction
  6. Strand 3: Reflecting on Scientific Knowledge
    • specialized type of knowledge
    • understand nature of science
    • science has its own vocabulary, history of scientific ideas, and ways of producing new knowledge
  7. Strand 3: Reflecting on Scientific Knowledge

    63 MODEL Application
    ample explanation time provides opportunities for students to experience firsthand how the same experiment could produce different results.
  8. Strand 4: Participating Productively in Science
    • know the rules of participation and abide by them
    • construct and subsequently present your scientific arguments to others
    • willing to ask questions and answer questions
    • skeptical but willing to change viewpoint
  9. Strand 4: Participating Productively in Science

    6E MODEL Application
    throughout all the stages because it is about being a scientist and participating in science in meaningful ways
  10. What is an operational definition?
    describe a word by an action
  11. What is critical thinking?
    • evaluate or judge whether something is adequate, correct, useful, or desirable
    • know the accepted standard and decide whether or to what degree it is being met
    • three types: open-mindness, objectivity, and willingness to suspend judgment
  12. What is inventiveness and the relation to creativity?
    • solving problems in creative or novel ways
    • they show fluency, flexibility, and originality in their thinking
  13. Process Skill OBSERVING with inquiry
    • use all of their senses when they observe similarities, differences, and changes in objects or
    • events

    observing the properties leads children into explorations such as classifying or communicating
  14. Process Skill CLASSIFYING with inquiry
    • imposes order on collections of objects or
    • events through characteristics such as color, shape, size, and value

    elaborate and explain ways to sort different objects according the category titles
  15. Process Skill MEASURING with inquiry
    comparing things using hands-on manipulatives nonstandard and standard units to find or estimate quantity

    child to child, let them explore and elaborate using different units of measurement
  16. Process Skill COMMUNICATING with inquiry
    • converting information or data obtained from our
    • observations into some form that another person can understand or some form that we can understand at a later date

    you continually ask questions, build vocabulary, or promote descriptions
  17. Process Skill INFERRING with inquiry
    • interpret or explain what we observe
    • two processes: make an inference on what you observe, predict an observation from
    • it

    plan multiple explorations where students distinguish between their observation and inferences
  18. Process Skill PREDICTING with inquiry
    • forecast of future observation based on
    • inferences from the available data
    • the more data collected = confidence in prediction

    • interpolating= between current data on graph
    • extrapolating= beyond current data on graph
  19. Process Skill EXPERIMENTING with inquiry
    • change objects or events to learn how nature
    • changes them

    ask children to state their hypotheses as testable questions and help them control variables within their understanding
  20. Process Skill HYPOTHESIZING with inquiry
    • “if-then” manner, normally tested after people
    • state an inference
  21. More Emphasis on Promoting Inquiry
    • process skills in context
    • using evidence and strategies for developing or revising an explanation
    • science as argument or explanation
    • management of ideas and information
    • public communication of student ideas and work to classmates
    • investigations over extended periods of time
  22. Less Emphasis on Promoting Inquiry
    • getting an answer
    • concluding inquiries with the result of the experiment
    • management of materials and equipment
    • activities that demonstrate and verify science in content
    • private communication of student ideas and conclusion to teacher
  23. Relation of Observing, Predicting, Inferring, and Hypothesizing
    once a child begins an observation, they may make an inference of what they think happened or caused the observation. after making the inference, a child may predict what might happen in the future according the observation data. finally, the child will hypothesize an "if-then statement" that may be tested to prove his inference correct or incorrect.
  24. Differences of Observing, Predicting, Inferring, and Hypothesizing
    Observations are something a child can see, hear, feel, taste, and smell. When a child uses the collected information, they can make an inference or "educated guess" why they think something occurred. Predicting is a future explanation based on the inference statement. Hypothesizing is actually coming up with a testable statement and performing the scientific method.

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