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Located ABove parent material
moved away from parent bedrock
vertical sequence of of soil layers
4 main characteristics that make up a mineral
- Naturally Occuring
- Inorganic Solid
- Definate Crystalline Structure
- Specific Chemical Composition
A solid in which the atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern.
molten material found beneath earths crust
7 ways to identify a mineral
Color, Luster, Streak, Cleavage & Fracture, Hardness, Density & Specific Gravity, And Texture
Most abundant element found in earths crust?
Oxygen + Silicon = ?
How are IGNEOUS rocks formed...?
crystallization of magma
two types of igneous rocks
- intrusive- coarse grained rocks. cooled slowly underneath earths crust.
- extrusive- Fine grained rocks. cooled quickly on earths surface.
pieces of solid material that have been deposited
how are sedimentary rocks formed.
deposition burial & lithification
meatmorphic rocks are formed by ________ & ____________
heat & pressuree!
two types of weathering?
- mechanical- physical
- chemical- composition
stripping away outter layers
water inside cracks, cold, freezes, ice expands, rocks crack even more
4 factors effecting chemical weathering
water oxygen carbon dioxide acids
hydrolysis , oxidation
- the reaction of substances with water.
- the reaction of substances with oxygen.
final stage of erosion process
the most signifigant cause of erosian
gravitys role in erosian
w/o gravity, glaciers would not slope downward
how does running water effect erosian?
loose covering of broken rock particles and organic matter
3 characteristics of soil
texture fertility color
does poorly developed soil show little or great distinction between layers?
4 soil types
- polar soils- high altitudes
- temprate soils- support a diverse enviroment
- desert soils- high level of accumulated salt
- tropical soils- weathered and infertile
how well a soil can support a growth of plants.
2 main factors that effect soil color?
compostion and climate
a distinct layer zone with a soil profile
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