Card Set Information
What do we call condensed DNA with associated proteins?
What phase of the cell cycle occupies most of an average cell's life?
During which stage of the cell cycle is DNA replicated
Are the products of mitosis diploid or haploid?
Are the products of meiosis diploid or haploid?
What are diploid cells?
Mitotic, 2 pairs of chromosomes, 2n
Which phase is responsible for cell growth?
Diploid is to somatic cell as haploid is to what?
What do we call chromosomes exchanging corresponding segments of DNA?
During cell division, the DNA in eukaryotic cell is tightly packed and coiled into structures called
During cell division, the DNA in eukaryotic cell is tightly packed and coiled around structures called
histones or other proteins
Between cell divisions, the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is uncoiled and spread out; in this form it is called
the chromosomes of most prokaryotes consist of proteins and
a single circular DNA molecule
Humans have 46 chromosomes in all cells except sperm and egg cells. How many of these chromosomes are autosomes?
If an organism has a diploid or 2n number of 16, how many chromosomes do its sperm cells or eggs cells contain
prokaryotic cells reproduce by a process called
in eukaryotic cells, DNA is copied during a phase of the cell cycle called
the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides by a process called
the fibers that extend from centrosome to centrosome during mitosis are
spindle fibers are a type of
in the G0 phase, what happens?
cells exit from the cell cycle
during synapsis what happens?
chromosomes line up next to their homologues
during crossing-over, portions of chromatids do what?
break off and attach to adjacent each chromatids on the homologous chromosome
in which phase of meiosis do tetrads form?
When do chromatids spearate into opposite poles of the cell?
In oogenesis, a diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically to produce
one haploid gamete
what are two ways in which genetic recomination occurs during meiosis
crossing-over and independent assortment
the symbol for haploid
the symbol for diploid
how many divisions are in mitosis?
how many divisions are in meiosis?
meiosis occurs where?
in prophase I, homologues pair up with one another along entire lengths to form a bundle of four chromatids which is called a
crossing over results in
genetic recombination and variation
what do tetrads do in metaphase I
move to the equator of the cell
homologues in anaphase I do what and move where along what
separate and move towards opposite poles along the spindle
male products of meiosis
female products of meiosis
1 mature egg/ovum and 3 polar bodies
term for meiosis in males
term for meiosis in females
chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere in what step of mitosis?
when does DNA coil into chromosomes
when do spindle fibers disassemble
kinetochore fibers move chromosomes to the cell's center in what stage of mitosis mitosis
centrosomes appear next to the disappearing nucleus in what step of mitosis
when does a nucleus form in each new cell
what is a picture of all chromosme pairs
when do chromatids move toward opposite poles of the dividing cell
when do spindle fibers radiate from the centrosomes
when does a nuclear envelope form around each set of new chromosomes
uncontroled cell growth
what are three factors that could cause cancer?
heredity, environment, viruses
What divides cells during cytokinesis in plants
What divides cells during cytokinesis in animals
two x chromosmes
x and y chromosme
what are the human sex chromosmes
x and y
what are sperm and egg cells examples of
rod-shaped sturctures made of DNA and proteins
proteins which DNA is wrapped tightly around in eukaryotic cells
one half of a chromosome
the point where two chromatids are attached to make a chromosome
uncondesed, less tightly packed DNA-protein complex
last chromosome that determines the sex of an organism
chromosomes that carry the genes of organisms
two copies of the same autosome
a picture showing the chromosomes
cells having two sets of chromosmes; produced by MITOSIS
cells having one set of chromosomes; produced by MEIOSIS
cell division in prokaryotic cells
eukaryotic cell division that results in new cells with indentical genetic material to its parents; produces diploid cells
eukaryotic cell division that results in new cells with half the number of chromosomes than its parents; produces haploid cells
production of offspring from one parent
a haploid reproductive cell formed in Meiosis
the time between cell divisions
process where the cell divides at the cytoplasm
first stage of mitosis; coiling of DNA; disappearing nucleus; forming of spindle fibers
made of microtubules
second phase of mitosis; chromosomes move to the center of the cell
third phase of mitosis; chromatids separate at the centromere and move towards opposite poles
fourth step of mitosis; chromosomes reach opposite poles; spindle fibers dissasembles; nucleus is recreated
spot where cells divide during cytokinesis in ANIMALS
spot where cells divide during cytokinesis in PLANTS
the pairing of homologous chromosomes in meiosis
each pair of homologous chromosomes in synapsis
portions of chromatids break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on homologous chromosomes
a new mixture of genetic material in meiosis created after crossing-over
the random separation of the homologouse chromosomes in Anaphase I
the production of sperm cells
the production of mature egg cells
three products of oogenesis that eventually regenerate
the production of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg