ch 8.txt

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zrmeyers20
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73400
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ch 8.txt
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2011-03-16 23:32:45
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mitosis meiosis
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ch 8
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  1. What do we call condensed DNA with associated proteins?
    chromosomes
  2. What phase of the cell cycle occupies most of an average cell's life?
    Interphase
  3. During which stage of the cell cycle is DNA replicated
    S phase
  4. Are the products of mitosis diploid or haploid?
    diploid
  5. Are the products of meiosis diploid or haploid?
    haploid
  6. What are diploid cells?
    Mitotic, 2 pairs of chromosomes, 2n
  7. Which phase is responsible for cell growth?
    G1
  8. Diploid is to somatic cell as haploid is to what?
    gamete
  9. What do we call chromosomes exchanging corresponding segments of DNA?
    crossing-over
  10. During cell division, the DNA in eukaryotic cell is tightly packed and coiled into structures called
    chromosomes
  11. During cell division, the DNA in eukaryotic cell is tightly packed and coiled around structures called
    histones or other proteins
  12. Between cell divisions, the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is uncoiled and spread out; in this form it is called
    chromatin
  13. the chromosomes of most prokaryotes consist of proteins and
    a single circular DNA molecule
  14. Humans have 46 chromosomes in all cells except sperm and egg cells. How many of these chromosomes are autosomes?
    44
  15. If an organism has a diploid or 2n number of 16, how many chromosomes do its sperm cells or eggs cells contain
    8
  16. prokaryotic cells reproduce by a process called
    binary fission
  17. in eukaryotic cells, DNA is copied during a phase of the cell cycle called
    S phase
  18. the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides by a process called
    cytokinesis
  19. the fibers that extend from centrosome to centrosome during mitosis are
    spindle fibers
  20. spindle fibers are a type of
    microtubule
  21. in the G0 phase, what happens?
    cells exit from the cell cycle
  22. during synapsis what happens?
    chromosomes line up next to their homologues
  23. during crossing-over, portions of chromatids do what?
    break off and attach to adjacent each chromatids on the homologous chromosome
  24. in which phase of meiosis do tetrads form?
    prophase I
  25. When do chromatids spearate into opposite poles of the cell?
    Meiosis II
  26. In oogenesis, a diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically to produce
    one haploid gamete
  27. what are two ways in which genetic recomination occurs during meiosis
    crossing-over and independent assortment
  28. the symbol for haploid
    n
  29. the symbol for diploid
    2n
  30. how many divisions are in mitosis?
    one
  31. how many divisions are in meiosis?
    two
  32. meiosis produces
    haploid gametes
  33. meiosis occurs where?
    the gonads
  34. male gonads
    testes
  35. female gonads
    ovaries
  36. in prophase I, homologues pair up with one another along entire lengths to form a bundle of four chromatids which is called a
    tetrad
  37. crossing over results in
    genetic recombination and variation
  38. what do tetrads do in metaphase I
    move to the equator of the cell
  39. homologues in anaphase I do what and move where along what
    separate and move towards opposite poles along the spindle
  40. male products of meiosis
    4 sperm
  41. female products of meiosis
    1 mature egg/ovum and 3 polar bodies
  42. term for meiosis in males
    spermatogenesis
  43. term for meiosis in females
    oogenesis
  44. chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere in what step of mitosis?
    anaphase
  45. when does DNA coil into chromosomes
    prophase
  46. when do spindle fibers disassemble
    telophase
  47. kinetochore fibers move chromosomes to the cell's center in what stage of mitosis mitosis
    metaphase
  48. centrosomes appear next to the disappearing nucleus in what step of mitosis
    prophase
  49. when does a nucleus form in each new cell
    telophase
  50. what is a picture of all chromosme pairs
    karyotype
  51. when do chromatids move toward opposite poles of the dividing cell
    anaphase
  52. when do spindle fibers radiate from the centrosomes
    prophase
  53. when does a nuclear envelope form around each set of new chromosomes
    telophase
  54. uncontroled cell growth
    cancer
  55. what are three factors that could cause cancer?
    heredity, environment, viruses
  56. What divides cells during cytokinesis in plants
    cell plate
  57. What divides cells during cytokinesis in animals
    cleavage furrow
  58. two x chromosmes
    male
  59. x and y chromosme
    female
  60. what are the human sex chromosmes
    x and y
  61. what are sperm and egg cells examples of
    gametes, haploids
  62. rod-shaped sturctures made of DNA and proteins
    chromosomes
  63. proteins which DNA is wrapped tightly around in eukaryotic cells
    histones
  64. one half of a chromosome
    chromatid
  65. the point where two chromatids are attached to make a chromosome
    centromere
  66. uncondesed, less tightly packed DNA-protein complex
    chromatin
  67. last chromosome that determines the sex of an organism
    sex chromosome
  68. chromosomes that carry the genes of organisms
    autosomes
  69. two copies of the same autosome
    homologous chromosomes
  70. a picture showing the chromosomes
    karyotype
  71. cells having two sets of chromosmes; produced by MITOSIS
    diploid
  72. cells having one set of chromosomes; produced by MEIOSIS
    haploid
  73. cell division in prokaryotic cells
    binary fission
  74. eukaryotic cell division that results in new cells with indentical genetic material to its parents; produces diploid cells
    mitosis
  75. eukaryotic cell division that results in new cells with half the number of chromosomes than its parents; produces haploid cells
    meiosis
  76. production of offspring from one parent
    asexual reproduction
  77. a haploid reproductive cell formed in Meiosis
    gametes
  78. the time between cell divisions
    interphase
  79. process where the cell divides at the cytoplasm
    cytokinesis
  80. first stage of mitosis; coiling of DNA; disappearing nucleus; forming of spindle fibers
    prophase
  81. made of microtubules
    spindle fibers
  82. second phase of mitosis; chromosomes move to the center of the cell
    metaphase
  83. third phase of mitosis; chromatids separate at the centromere and move towards opposite poles
    anaphase
  84. fourth step of mitosis; chromosomes reach opposite poles; spindle fibers dissasembles; nucleus is recreated
    telophase
  85. spot where cells divide during cytokinesis in ANIMALS
    cleavage furrow
  86. spot where cells divide during cytokinesis in PLANTS
    cell plate
  87. the pairing of homologous chromosomes in meiosis
    synapsis
  88. each pair of homologous chromosomes in synapsis
    tetrad
  89. portions of chromatids break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on homologous chromosomes
    crossing-over
  90. a new mixture of genetic material in meiosis created after crossing-over
    genetic recombination
  91. the random separation of the homologouse chromosomes in Anaphase I
    independent assortment
  92. the production of sperm cells
    spermatogenesis
  93. the production of mature egg cells
    oogeneis
  94. three products of oogenesis that eventually regenerate
    polar bodies
  95. the production of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg
    sexual reproduction

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