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- The result of cells producing new cells through cell division
- As this occurs, cells differentiate to develop into specialized cells with different functions
- When the cells surrounding an injury are stimulated to divide repeatedly to form what is missing
- this is called regeneration
- Asexual Reproduction: the production of offspring by a single parent without combining genes from another individual(mitosis)
- Sexual Reprodution: the production of offspring by combining genetic material from two parent organisms (meiosis)
- The sequence of phases in the life cycle of a cell
- Two parts:
- +Cell Division:
- The part of the cell cycle that occurs between divisions
- 90% of total time in cell cycle
- Growth and preparation
- Growth and development of the cell
- Normal cell metabolism(how fast the body uses energy)
Chromosomes (contain DNA) replicate, or make copies of themselves
- Cell synthesizes organelles and other materials
- Centrioles replicate to form two pairs
The process in which a nucleus divides to form two new nuclei. During this process, the DNA duplicates and then divides into two identical sets. One-celed organisms reproduce by this process
The process in which the cytoplasm divides into two parts. Each of the two new parts contains a newly formed nucleus with one set of genetic material as well as half the number of the organelles of the original, or parent cell.
- Chromosomes in nucleus condense
- In the cytoplasm, a bridge of proteins assemble into microtubules, forming a fibrous strcture called the mitotic spindle
- Late prophas: mitotic spindle stretches out between opposite poles of the cells
- Nuclear envelope and nucleolus break into fragments and disappear
- Centromeres of chromosomes attach to spindle fibers, which move them toward the center of the cell
- Chromosomes are pulled to the center of the cell which is called metaphase plate
- Then each chromosome is lined up at an equal distance from the ends of the cell
In this phase centromeres divide and spindle fibers pull chromatids apart toward the opposite poles of the cell. Two identical sets of daughter chromosomes or DNA is created
- Last phase, two daughter nuclei are formed
- Reverse of prophase- nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes
- Chromosomes uncoil to form loose mass of chromatin
- Mitotic spindle disappears
make copies of themselves
The hereditary, or genetic material of the cell that has information on how to make cell parts and instructions for RNA to use on how to make proteins. It is found in the form of a double helix. It also has information that controls cellular activities. This controls how an organism is made up and how it works as a whole.
The term used for the form of nuclear DNA that is a mass of thin, twisted thread that are wound around proteins called histones. DNA is found in this form throughout most of interphase, when the cell is not dividing. It makes up a chromosome.
It is DNA that is condensed into short, thick rod-like structures. There are most noticeable when the cell is about to divideor is in the process of dividing. Each replicated chromosome consits of two sister chromatids.
A half of a chromosome
The point where sister chromatids are joined together
Microtubules which form and stretch across the cell to act as guides and separate chromosomes.
Organizes mitotic spindle and involved in completion of cytokinesis
Cancer is the uncontrolled division of particular cells
It stops mitosis which prevents the cancer cells from dividing and therefore stops the tumor of cancer from growing.