Exam 2 Review

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yesi13badilla
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73443
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Exam 2 Review
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2011-03-18 18:15:21
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ENV
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Environmental Science Exam 2 Review
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  1. Explain the difference between point and nonpoint. Which is harder?
    • point source is coming from a specific known source
    • non point source is when there is no specific source (non point is harder to control because we dont know where the pollution is coming from)
  2. What are national parks controversial?
    • people feed the animals
    • this creates a change in animal behavior
  3. Distinguish between acute and chronic toxicity?
    • acute is immediate (affects humans)
    • chronic is over time
  4. Describe 2 of the 6 components of soil?
    air, water, dead organic material, soil, fauna and floral, clay
  5. Describe two ways to decrease air pollution
    contorl nitrates and phosphates
  6. What is environmental health?
    natural, social, cultural, and biological
  7. What are the two natural causes of climate shift?
    • El Nino & Maloncovitch
    • tilt of the earth
  8. Define "emergent disease"
    • a new disease that was not previously known to science
    • it can also be a disease that was gone for 20 yrs. or more
  9. Name two pieces of evidence for human induced climate change
    • carbon in the ice in antartica
    • change in seasons
    • temperatures getting warmer
  10. What are the five layers of soil?
    • O A B E C layers
    • O is organic
    • A is the surface
    • B is the subsoil
    • E is leviated
    • C is decomposed layers
  11. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Water Treatments
  12. What is the difference between a primary air pollutant and a secondary air pollutant?
    • primary air pollutant are bas as soon as they are released
    • secondary air pollutant can become bad
  13. Name two ways to minimize the environmental costs of farming?
    • organic farming
    • control where the waste goes
    • genetically modified crops, sustainable (controlled), strip farming
  14. Define the term "health"
    social, mental, physical well being
  15. Define "disease"
    abnormal change in the body's functions
  16. What is the green house effect?
    • gas in the atmosphere, collects heat
    • capture of energy/heat by gases in the atmosphere
  17. Why is road construction a threat to global forests?
    • damages roads to make roads
    • others go and have full access
    • people come in and destroy the habitat
  18. What are endocrine distruptors ans why are they of concern?
    • the endocrine systems produces hormones
    • excess changes in sex ex: fish
    • even in small concentrations they have bad affects(women pee and it goes into the water)
  19. Name three alternatives to clear cutting forests
    • sheerwood harversting: go in and cut down certain trees every 10 yrs or so
    • strip cutting: lines, stripping
    • selective: largest trees or varieties
  20. Name 4 ways that water is important to life?
    transports nutrients, density between solids/liquids, dissolves nutrients
  21. Define "bioaccumulation" and "biomagnification"
    • bioaccumulation: cells from a body absorb and take nutrinents from the environment (storage)
    • biomagnification: moves its way up the food chain (DET) larger fish accunulates to eagles at the top of the chain(it stays in cells and magnifies)
  22. What do wwe mean by old growth forest?
    a forest where the trees are undisturbed by humans and they get to their full growth cycle
  23. Give one example of non-point source watter pollution
    • no specific point
    • farm pesticides
  24. What is the most vulnerable part of the Earth? Why?
    Atmosphere
  25. Define the tem oxygen sag
    there is an oxygen decline from the bacteria breaking down nutrients and taking the oxygen
  26. Why does hunger persist in a wordl of surplus food production?
    • war and other political issues
    • the food is not evenly distributed
  27. Describe two environmental costs of farming?
    • irrigation (water)
    • pesticides use
    • pollution, water logging, salination
  28. What is the green revolution?
    when the government helps farmers grow high-yield crops
  29. Give one example of point source pollution
    factory- it is known where its coming from
  30. Name 2 emergent properties of forests that are valuable to humans
    • anythings that make forests better
    • nutrients, shelter, food, oxygen
  31. Define Eutrophic
    water rich in nutrients and organic material
  32. Why is overgrazing such a problem?
    • grasslands
    • taking habitat destruction
  33. Describe an example of environmental cost of water diversity by taking the water from the river to farms and cities
    • less water in the rivers which may cause them to dry out
    • need to remove people(relocation)
  34. Define "Oligotrophic"
    water low in wild life (clear)
  35. Withdrawal is the total amount of water...
    B) taken from rivers, lakes, acquifers
  36. Economically, was is monoculture better for loggers?
    A) largest benefit due to one type of forest
  37. Goiter is a common disease resulting from a dietary shortage from
    B) Iodine
  38. Disadvantage of conservation tillage methods?
    C) increased pests and weeds
  39. EPA assumes acceptable risk for environmental hazard is about 1 in ?
    E) 1 million
  40. What factor is important to decide if a country is water "rich" or "poor"?
    E) renewable water supplies
  41. Monetary inputs to local environment thru parks is called what?
    A) ecotrourism
  42. Forests harvest method leave natural old growth forets?
    B) selective
  43. NOT ON TEST: Most public rangelands are in poor condition due to what?
    C) too many privately owned animals on public lands
  44. One principle way lakes suffer from acid deposition?
    B) fish eggs due to fish population fare
  45. What is the layer of soil that is a mixture of minerals?
    A) O layer (organic)
  46. Biomagnification of DDT
    A) higher ----level organism "inverse biological pyramid"
  47. Hydrologic compartment that contains the greatest amount of fresh water is...
    D) ice and water
  48. Soil organism usually stays ___________ the soil
    C) close to the surface
  49. What is the basis of the statement that we can feed more people if we feed it to the people rather than feeding it to livestock?
    B) Second Law of Thermodynamics
  50. Most commom, loggers prefer "clear cut" logging because...
    C) it is the most efficient, cheap, fast machinery
  51. Sustainable farming is...
    A) cheaper and safer than conventional farming
  52. What are the advantages of genetically modified crops?
    E) all resist drought and often even resist pests
  53. High persistance of toxic chemical
    netan toxicity
  54. Colifrorm bacteria populationg are routinely monitored in drinking water supplies because bacteria...
    C) indicate the precense of feces in water
  55. Principal problems that resusted from the construction of large dome include...
    • E) all
    • evaporation, salination, leaking, weakening,
  56. National Parks are important
    endanger, pollution
  57. What are the greastest threat to humans?
    Pathogenic Organisms
  58. Plants that take up heavy metals found in water are an example of what?
    Bioremediation
  59. Atmospheric zone where events occur is what?
    troposhere
  60. Activity shore of
    flushing toilet
  61. What is not found in water than has gone thru the tertiary treatment?
    dissolved minerals
  62. Famines are most often serious when
    drought and war
  63. What are the three crops that humans rely on for majority nutrients and
    wheat, rice, and maize
  64. type of ----susceptible to acid
    limestone
  65. The parent material layer of soil is composed of what?
    rock fragments
  66. Cutting of rainforests. Which statement is how rainforest and tied to human mobility?
    mosquitoes with an aquatic form spread many hgihly contagious disesases
  67. Which statement is true?

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