decrease blood volume and lower BP
The most frequent side effect associated with diuretics is hypokalemia
(low potassium levels). Monitor the serum potassium level and assess for irregular pulse and muscle weakness,
which may indicate hypokalemia. Teach patients taking potassium-depleting diuretics to eat foods high in potassium, such as bananas and orange juice.
Diuretics are the drugs of choice for patients who have asthma, chronic airway limitation, chronic renal disease, and select cases of heart failure.
thiazide - prevent sodium and water reabsorption in the distal tubes of the kidneys while promoting K+ excretion
- loop - depress Na reabsorption in the ascending loop of the Henle and PROMOTE Na & K+ excretion (ex: lasix)
- K+ sparing - act on the distal tubule to inhibit reabsorption of sodium ions in exchange for potassium, thereby retaining potassium. (ex: spironolactone (Aldactone, Novospiroton)