n300 final review

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n300 final review
2011-03-17 08:12:36

review for n300 final
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  1. carcinoma?
    starts in the skin or in tissues covering internal organs
  2. sarcoma
    begins in connective or supportive tissue
  3. leukemia
    begins in bone marrow or blood-producing cells; travels into the bloodflow
  4. lymphoma & myeloma
    cancer beginning in the immune system cells
  5. CNS cancers
    begins in brain or spinal cord
  6. diuretics used for CHF - what should the nurse monitor?
    serum potassium levels
  7. inotropic vs chronotropic actions?
    • inotropic - affects cardiac contraction
    • chronotropic - affects heart rate
  8. left-sided (aka systolic) heart failure
    • impaired ventricular contraction (decreased CO)
    • backup of blood to left atrium, then to lungs
    • symptoms: hacking cough, dyspnea, chest pain
  9. right-sided (aka diastolic) heart failure
    • due to increased blood volume
    • ventricles cannot contract to accomodate increased afterload/preload
    • backward flow to periphery
  10. pulmonary edema often occurs synonmyously with what sided HF?
  11. depolarization?
    contraction of the ventricle/atrium
  12. repolarization?
    resting period after contraction
  13. trace cardiac conduction through the heart, in order
    • starts in SA node
    • travels to AV node
    • Bundle of His (in the bundle branches)
    • Purkinje fibers
  14. during cardiac rehab - should the pt be doing isometric or isotonic exercises?
    • isotonic.
    • isotonic - gradually increases HR. jogging, etc
    • isometric - quick increase in HR. requires more oxygen. ie, weight lifting or shoveling snow
  15. mitral valve prolapse?
    • mitral valve (between LA and LV) is leaky, and blood may seep back into LA from the LV.
    • symptoms: similar to HF, chest pain, palpitations, activity intolerance.
    • during physical exam: "mitral click" heard as extra heart sound
  16. mitral stenosis?
    • mitral valve hardens. causes buildup of fluid in LA b/c blood is not getting to LV
    • risk of emboli due to pooling blood
    • right-sided failure will also occur eventually since it is being overworked
  17. symptoms of right-sided HF?
    • peripheral edema
    • hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
    • jugular vein distention
    • ascites
    • murmurs