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starts in the skin or in tissues covering internal organs
begins in connective or supportive tissue
begins in bone marrow or blood-producing cells; travels into the bloodflow
lymphoma & myeloma
cancer beginning in the immune system cells
begins in brain or spinal cord
diuretics used for CHF - what should the nurse monitor?
serum potassium levels
inotropic vs chronotropic actions?
- inotropic - affects cardiac contraction
- chronotropic - affects heart rate
left-sided (aka systolic) heart failure
- impaired ventricular contraction (decreased CO)
- backup of blood to left atrium, then to lungs
- symptoms: hacking cough, dyspnea, chest pain
right-sided (aka diastolic) heart failure
- due to increased blood volume
- ventricles cannot contract to accomodate increased afterload/preload
- backward flow to periphery
pulmonary edema often occurs synonmyously with what sided HF?
contraction of the ventricle/atrium
resting period after contraction
trace cardiac conduction through the heart, in order
- starts in SA node
- travels to AV node
- Bundle of His (in the bundle branches)
- Purkinje fibers
during cardiac rehab - should the pt be doing isometric or isotonic exercises?
- isotonic - gradually increases HR. jogging, etc
- isometric - quick increase in HR. requires more oxygen. ie, weight lifting or shoveling snow
mitral valve prolapse?
- mitral valve (between LA and LV) is leaky, and blood may seep back into LA from the LV.
- symptoms: similar to HF, chest pain, palpitations, activity intolerance.
- during physical exam: "mitral click" heard as extra heart sound
- mitral valve hardens. causes buildup of fluid in LA b/c blood is not getting to LV
- risk of emboli due to pooling bloodright-sided failure will also occur eventually since it is being overworked
symptoms of right-sided HF?
- peripheral edema
- hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
- jugular vein distention