- Older population represents a larger portion of the total population
- The number of men per 100 women in a population
SR= number of males/number of females x 100
- the theoretical upper limit of human longevity
What are the major biological theories of aging?
- Neuroendocrine "wear and tear"
-limited cell division
- Free redical damage
- diminished ability to repair DNA
What are the dimensions of health
- Morbidity (physical and mental)
- Functional health (limitations and disability)
What is the best single predictor of mortality?
What are the major types of depressive disorders?
- Major depression
- depressive symptoms interfere with ability to work, sleep, eat and enjoy once pleasurable activivties
- long term chronic (but not debilitating) depressive symptoms that diminishes quality of life
- a progressive, degenerative disorder that attacks the brains nerve cells. Sticky plaques and fibrous tangles interfere with neural activity causing memory loss and impairment of language and judgement skills
What is the leading form of dementia amoung older adults?
Approximately how many americans have AD?
- 5 million; this number is expected to rise to 16 million by 2050
When does AD onset typically occur?
- after age 60
What is the prevalece of AD?
- about 5% for those 65-74 and over 50% for those 85+
What is the life expectancy beyond onset of AD?
- 8-10 years
How much is spent annually on treating people with AD?
- over $100 billion
- aka functional impairment; difficulty performing generic physical actions that are part of everyday living
What is the definition of disability according to the americans with disabilities act?
- "A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual"
What are ADLs? name some examples
- Activities of Daily Living- activities required for personal care including bathing, dressing, getting to and using the toilet, getting in and out of a bed or chair, walking, getting outside and eating.
What are IDLAs? name some examples
- instrumental activities of daily living- activites necessary for maintaining a household including preparing meals, shopping, managing money, using the telephone, light and heavy housework,
- a system in which groups of people are ranked according to their relative power, property, and prestige.
- Social stratification refers to groups not individuals, and is universal
- multidimensional system of social stratification based upon wealth, status and power
Explain Karl Marx's view of social class
- he viewed that the arrangement of social classes is a function of a society's mode of production- the way that goods and services are produced and distributed)
- in a capitalistic society, social class structure is determined by ownership of the means of production such as land, machinery, factories, financial institutions, technology etc.
According to marx what are the two promary classes in a capitalist society
- those who own capital (capitalist)
- those who sell their labor (workers)
What was max weber's view of social class?
- Weber acknowledged the role that ownership ofthe means of production plays in determining social class; however, he also considered power and prestige as two additional social factors that were equally important.
- ability to carry out one's will despite resistance
- respect, regard, or status given by others
What are some criteria commonly used to determine social class?
- Wealth (property and income), power, and prestige
The orshansky Index
- created in 1964 by mollie orshansky as a tool to be used in the War on Poverty.
- Based on a Deparment of Agr. survey finding that americans spend about 1/3rd of their mony on food.
- set the poverty threshold at 3xs the cost of an economy food plan
What is the poverty level based on?
- the size and ages of family members living in the same household and is adjusted nnually for inflation
What is the relationship between class and health?
- the less affluence the worse the health for all major causes of death, regardless of how class is measured or of gender race or age, for all current societies, and within societies over time (historically)
- the process or pathway through which one variable affects another. If some variable [A] causes another variable [B] there may be other variables [C] that act as causal mechanisms of that effect.
What are two models of the effect of class on health from Adler and Ostrove?
- The threshold model (curved line) and the gradient model (linear line)
What is some evidence for the gradient effect of class on health?
- overall mortality, pace of epidemological transition, cancer etc.
grouping of people based on physical features such as skin color, type of hair, or facial features.
- grouping of people based on commin social, cultural, or linguistic background.
What does the social construction of race and ethnicity refer to?
- the waus we subjectively organize our ideas around a stimulus or perception regarding a person's appearance and background
What are the major ethoracial minorities in the US
- African Americans, Hispanics, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaskan Natives
What is the growth in ethnicities in the past 20 years?
- Hispanics have had the largest absolute increase (+15 million)
- Asians/PI have experienced the largest grouwth rate (+179%)
What is the life expectancy difference for whites and African Americans (1950-2005)
- Whites overall is higher than African Americans
Mortality in Harlem
- Based on SMRs, death rates have not fallen to the same extent as the rest of the US, mortality rates comparable to that of bangladesh, high mortality at all ages below 75 and especially high in the 25-64 age group and for children under 4, higher mortality for all causes except suicide.
- These patterns common to areas of newyork and other cities that have high proportion of minorities
What are the causal links between race/ethnicity and health?
- SOCIAL CLASS, cultural factors such as diet, health benefits, social networks, and language, and discrimination