____ Refers to craving and eating substances not normally considered nutrients, sucha as clay, cornstarch or dirt.
_____ is low body temperature resulting from proglonged uncontrolled exposure to cold
____ is a mechanism of heat exchange between our skin and the external enviornment
Radiation, evaporation, conduction, convection
_____serves as the structural basia of bile salts, steroid hormones, and vitamin D and as a major componet of plasma membranes
_____is a common consequence of starvation, unwise dieting (in which inadequate amounts of carbohydrates are eaten), and diabetes mellitus.
The monosacchardise ___ is the carbohydrate molecule ultimately used as fuel by body cells to produce adenosine triphosphate.
_____is difficulty swallowing, which usually is due to obstruction or physical trauma to the esophagus.
____ is grinding of clencing of teeth, usually at night during sleep in response to stress
Watery stools, or _____ result from any condition that rushes food residue through the large intestine befofe that organ has had sufficent time to absorb the remaining water.
Too much cholesterol or too few bile salts lead to cholesterol crystillization forming ____, which obstruct the flow of bile from teh gallbladder
biliary calculi and gallstones
____is a progressive chronic inflammation of the liver that typicaklly results from chroinc alcoholsim or sever chronic hepatitis.
The liver is_________.
The largest gland
______are fingerlike projections of the mucosa, over 1mm high, that give the inside of the small intestine a velvety texture, much like teh soft nap of a towel
______________ is teh swallowing of food to move it from the mouth to the stomach
Digestive Accessory organs include the __________.
teeth, tounge, saliveray glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
The intestinal mucosa secretes _________.
digestive enzymes, hormones, mucus
The buccal cavity contains ____, which are antimicrobial compounds produced in response to injury.
_________refers to the mass of food that is ready for swallowing.
The ____ is the transition zone between the outer skin and the mucous membrane of the oral cavity.
the _____ is the undersurface attachment of the tounge to the floor of the mouth.
______papillae occur on the dorsume of the tongue
is continously secreted
A person with a dental formula of i 2/2 pm2/2, m 2/2 has __________teeth.
________ is a structural abnormality (most often due to an abnormal relaxation or weakining of the gastroesophageal sphincter) in which the superior part of the stomach protrudes slighlty above the diaphragm.
The ___ is an acellular, brittly covering of the tooth that dirrectly bears the force of chewing and is the hardse substane in teh body.
The _____kidney never becomes functional and degenrates
The ____anchors the kidney to the peritonemu and abdominal wall
The _____transports urine from the kidney
The urachus may _____
anchor the bladder
exit at the umbilicus
_______refers to the need to get up at night to urinate
________is teh inability to control micturition
Whenever pH of arterial blood rises above 7.45, a person is said to have
Upon activation by parathyroid hormone, osteoclasts break down and release _____into the blood.
_____ is an atypical accumulation of fluid in the intersitial space, leding to swelling of tissue.
Dehydration is a common sequel to ______
Body water produced by cellular metabolism is called________
metabolic water and water of oxidation
______are not an electrolyte
_______ in the urine is a significant indicator of disease
acetone, blood, glucose
When ascending from the pelvis the kidneys are very close together and in 1 out of every 600 people they fuse acrossthe midline,forming a single, U-shaped
___________occurs when the urethral orifice is located on the ventral surface on the penis
_____refers to inflammation in the bladder
The _____muscle forms the internal urethral sphincter
Nitrogenous wastes include _______________
urea and uric acid
Color urine is determined by ______, a pigment that results from the body's destruction of hemoglorbin
________enhances urinary output
alcohol, caffeine, any diruertic
If fatty tissue dwindles, one or both kidneys may drop toa lower position an event called _______.
Collecting ducts receive filtarte from __________.
the distal convoluted is _____to the descending loop of Henle