Anatomy and Physiology 2 Exam 2
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What are the components of blood?
- Blood Plasma
- Formed element
Those two make whole blood
What are the major functions of blood?
- Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
- Regulating pH and ion composition ISF
- Restricting fluid loss at injury sites
- Defending the body against toxins and pathogens
- Regulating body temperature by absorbing and redistibuting heat
What is the function of plasma?
Clotting of blood
What is the composition of plasma?
92% Water and 7% Plasma proteins
What are the characteristices of RBC's?
What are the functions of RBC's?
- Carry O2
- Immune response
- Help stop blood loss
What is the structure of Hemoglobin?
- Globulin-complex quaternary shape
- Heme-iron contain pigment portion
What is the function of hemoglobin?
Transportation of O2
What is Erythropoiesis?
- Red bone cell production.
- Occurs in the red bone marrow
- Sped up by erythropoietin
- Requires B12 and folic acid
What is the importance of blood typing?
So that there are no cross reactions between the different blood types.(Clotting)
What is the basis for ABO and Rh incompatibilities?
What are the 2 different categories of WBC's?
Granular-Have granules in their cytoplasm that are actually lysosomes
What are the 5 types of WBC's?
What is the structure of platelets?
- Disc-shaped elements without nuclei
- Not true cells
What is the functions of platelets?
Help stop blood loss from damaged blood vessels by forming a platelet plug
How are platelets produced?
Under thrombopoietin myeloid stem cells megakaryocytes. They are the fragments of the megakaryocytes.
What is the mechanism that controls blood loss after and injury?
What is the sequence of events responsible for blood clotting?
- Vascular phase
- Platelet Phase
- Coagulation phase
What makes up the cardiovascular system?
What does the cardiovascular system do?
Rapid transport of nutrients, waste products, respiratory gases and cells
What kind of tissue is blood?
Fluid connective tissue
Liquid component consisting of 92% water and 8% solutes
- first phagocytes at the site of infection, release leukotrienes, phagocytosis of foreign substances
- 40-70% of WBC pop.
- 3-7 lobed nucleus
- pale purple cytoplasm with small granules
- Phagocytes attracted to foreign compounds that have reacted with antibodies aid in allergic reactions and parasite infections
- 1-4% of leukocytes
- Bi-lobed shaped nucleus
- Large cytoplasmic granules that stain orange in color
- Migrate to damaged tissue and release histamine and heparin that helps to mediate iflammatory responses
- Ratest WBC <1%
- U or S shaped nucleus
- Very dark granules that stain dark purple
- enters peripheral tissue and becomes a macrophage (masters of phagocytosis)
- Largest WBC
- 4-8% of pop.
- Kidney shaped nucleus
- Grey-blue cytoplasm
- Interact with antigens to fight infection
- Smallest WBC
- 20-45% of WBC pop.
- Large nucleus and small rim of cytoplasm
Smooth muscle will constrict causing local vasoconstriction
Platelets start sticking to rough edges, more and more come until platelet plug can be formed
- Extrinsic pathway
- Intrinsic pathway
- Common pathway
All three are positive feedback and Vit K is required for the formation of the 4 clotting factors (2 7 9 10)
- A rapid pathway that begins out side the bloodstream
- Damaged tissues outside of the vessel send tissue factor 3 into the blood
- Begin clotting process (involves calcium ions)
- formation of prothrombinase
- begins within bloodstream
- activates factor 7
- Factor 10 turns into prothrombinase that converts prothrombin to thrombin
- Thrombin converts fibrinogen to loose fibrin threads that are insoluble forming a sturdy clot
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