Anatomy and Physiology 2 Exam 2
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Anatomy and Physiology 2 Exam 2
Anatomy Physiology Terra
Lecture Exam 2 Chap 19
What are the components of blood?
Those two make whole blood
What are the major functions of blood?
Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
Regulating pH and ion composition ISF
Restricting fluid loss at injury sites
Defending the body against toxins and pathogens
Regulating body temperature by absorbing and redistibuting heat
What is the function of plasma?
Clotting of blood
What is the composition of plasma?
92% Water and 7% Plasma proteins
What are the characteristices of RBC's?
What are the functions of RBC's?
Help stop blood loss
What is the structure of Hemoglobin?
Globulin-complex quaternary shape
Heme-iron contain pigment portion
What is the function of hemoglobin?
Transportation of O2
What is Erythropoiesis?
Red bone cell production.
Occurs in the red bone marrow
Sped up by erythropoietin
Requires B12 and folic acid
What is the importance of blood typing?
So that there are no cross reactions between the different blood types.(Clotting)
What is the basis for ABO and Rh incompatibilities?
What are the 2 different categories of WBC's?
Granular-Have granules in their cytoplasm that are actually lysosomes
What are the 5 types of WBC's?
What is the structure of platelets?
Disc-shaped elements without nuclei
Not true cells
What is the functions of platelets?
Help stop blood loss from damaged blood vessels by forming a platelet plug
How are platelets produced?
Under thrombopoietin myeloid stem cells megakaryocytes. They are the fragments of the megakaryocytes.
What is the mechanism that controls blood loss after and injury?
What is the sequence of events responsible for blood clotting?
What makes up the cardiovascular system?
What does the cardiovascular system do?
Rapid transport of nutrients, waste products, respiratory gases and cells
What kind of tissue is blood?
Fluid connective tissue
Liquid component consisting of 92% water and 8% solutes
first phagocytes at the site of infection, release leukotrienes, phagocytosis of foreign substances
40-70% of WBC pop.
3-7 lobed nucleus
pale purple cytoplasm with small granules
Phagocytes attracted to foreign compounds that have reacted with antibodies aid in allergic reactions and parasite infections
1-4% of leukocytes
Bi-lobed shaped nucleus
Large cytoplasmic granules that stain orange in color
Migrate to damaged tissue and release histamine and heparin that helps to mediate iflammatory responses
Ratest WBC <1%
U or S shaped nucleus
Very dark granules that stain dark purple
enters peripheral tissue and becomes a macrophage (masters of phagocytosis)
4-8% of pop.
Kidney shaped nucleus
Interact with antigens to fight infection
20-45% of WBC pop.
Large nucleus and small rim of cytoplasm
Smooth muscle will constrict causing local vasoconstriction
Platelets start sticking to rough edges, more and more come until platelet plug can be formed
All three are positive feedback and Vit K is required for the formation of the 4 clotting factors (2 7 9 10)
A rapid pathway that begins out side the bloodstream
Damaged tissues outside of the vessel send tissue factor 3 into the blood
Begin clotting process (involves calcium ions)
formation of prothrombinase
begins within bloodstream
activates factor 7
Factor 10 turns into prothrombinase that converts prothrombin to thrombin
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to loose fibrin threads that are insoluble forming a sturdy clot