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Where do light independent and light dependent reactions occur?
- light dependent - thylakoids
- light independent - stroma
Know about the different stages of cell respiration.
- pg. 102
- Krebs Cycle
splits glucose into two pyruvate
Examples of monocots
grasses, lilies, palms, and orchids
Functions of shoot systems
photosynthesis, transport of materials among leaves, flowers, fruits, and roots, and reproduction
Light capturing pigments
chlorophyll (pg. 88)
End product of aerobic glycolysis
two pyruvate, two ATP, two NADH
Glycolysis of cell respiration
How many ATPs are produced from a complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose in Cellular Respiration?
Functions of Root Systems
anchor plant to ground, absorb and transport water and nutrients from the soil, and store surplus sugars from photosynthesis
Xylem and Phloem
- xylem - conducting tissue of vascular plants that transports water and minerals from root to shoot
- phloem - conducting tissue of vascular plants that transports a concentrated sugar solution up and down the plant
Parts of a leaf
- pg. 86
- mesophyll cells
What does bark consist of?
phloem, cork cambium, and cork cells
cells forming the center of a root or stem
Why are conifers considered soft wood?
because they lack vessels
Tap root, fibrous root systems
- tap root - commonly found in dicots, consists of a long, thick main root and many smaller lateral roots, all that grow from the primary root
- fibrous root - commonly found in monocots, characterized by many roots of the same size arising from the base of the stem
Gas exchange in leaves
CO2 to O2 through stomata
Legumes are associated with what?
carpel (pgs. 169 & 343)
Types of insects brightly colored flowers attract.
What is necessary for seed germination?
- pg. 347-350
- food reserves
- good temperatures
- water and minerals in soil
- protected tip
Parts of a flower?
- pg. 344
What flowers use wind dispersal?
- dandelions and maples (lightweight fruits)
- pg. 357
What type uses animal dispersal?
- cocklebur, burdocks, burr clover, foxtails, sticktights
growth with respect to direction of light
plant hormone that influences many plant functions like phototropism, apical dominance, and root branching; generally stimulates cell elongation and cell division and differentiation
Function of ethylene?
promotes the ripening of fruits and the dropping of fruit and leaves
Function of abscisic acid?
inhibits the action of other hormones, enforcing dormancy in seeds and buds and causing the closing of stomata
Poinsettia plants are what kind of plants?
Spinach is what kind of plant?
Salicylic acid plays what role in plants?
roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. SA also induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure. SA is involved in endogenous signaling, mediating in plant defense against pathogens. It plays a role in the resistance to pathogens by inducing the production of pathogenesis-related proteins. It is involved in the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in which a pathogenic attack on one part of the plant induces resistance in other parts. The signal can also move to nearby plants by salicyclic acid being converted to the volatile ester, methyl salicylate.
What causes a venus fly trap to close?
- the trigger hairs are brushed
- Cells in an inner layer of the leaf are very compressed. This creates tension in the plant tissue that holds the trap open.
- Mechanical movement of the trigger hairs puts into motion ATP-driven changes in water pressure within these cells.
- The cells are driven to expand by the increasing water pressure, and the trap closes as the plant tissue relaxes.
What happens to fruit when the seeds mature?
the fruit ripens - softer, sweeter, and more bright
What provides greatest means of seed dispersal?
Alternations of generations.
life cycle typical of plants in which a diploid sporophyte generation alternates with a haploid gametophyte generation
in flowering plants, the fusion of two sperm nuclei with the nuclei of two cells of the female gametophyte. one sperm fuses with the egg to form zygote; second sperm fuses with two haploid nuclei of primary endosperm to form triploid endosperm cell
Secondary xylem and secondary phloem
- 2xylem - produced from cells that arise at the inside of the vascular cambium
- 2phloem - produced from cells that arise at the outside of the vascular cambium
What is older, nonfunctional xylem called?
evaporation of water through the stomata of a leaf
flowering plant characterized by embryos with two cotyledons, or seed leaves, modified for food storage
What makes plants grow tall?
primary growth pgs.328-332
growth in length and development of the initial structures of plant roots and shoots, due to the cell division of apical meristems and differentiation of the daughter cells.
The term whorl 1,2,3,4 is the same as...
sepal, petal, stamen, and carpel respectively
made by plants as part of their immune system; what aspirin is made of.
- occurs in the cytoplasm
- aerobic-with oxygen. anerobic-without oxygen.
- Either way we get 2 ATP's.
occurs in matrix of mitochondria 2 ATP's through 2 turns of the cycle. Also known as citric acid cycle. H2O and CO2 are produced here.