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Definition of psychology:
the study of behavior and mental process.
6 Psychological perspectives
- Biological: nervous system, neurochemistry, hormones, genetics, and evolutionary influences.
- Learning: environment and experience.
- Cognitive: thinking, memory, language, and perception.
- Psychodynamic: unconscious thoughts, conflicts, and desires.
- Social: individuals behaving in groups.
medical specialty of diagnosing and treating mental disorders; can prescribe drugs
- 1) Observation(s) or problem(s)
- 2) Review the literature (evidence and support)
- 3) Hypothesis (real first step of scientific method)
- 4) Gather data (survey, case studies, natural observation)
- 5) Analyze data
- 6) Conclusion
Confounding variable (in an experiment):
interferes with the experiment.
Coefficient of correlation:
- 0.1 – 1.0 (line slope up)
- -0.1 – -1.0 (line slope down)
- (on graph) line showing average of results.
Quasi experimental design:
take what you can get; no control, no random
- Father of modern psychology
- Structuralism: immediate experience into the element (the nerve= basic unit)
- Father of American psychology
- Functionalism: function or purpose of behavior and consciousness– mind, body, and spirit
Conditional Learning; training dogs to salivate at sound of bell.
- Psychoanalysis: early childhood experiences and unconscious motivation
- First to study dreams
- Behaviorism: learned, measured, and observed Little Albert Experiment.
- Infants were made to fear lab rat by hitting huge gong when rat came in room.
"Gestalt (whole)" perception: weird pictures the look different when rotated.
B. F. Skinner:
- Behaviorism: learned, measured, and observed Reinforcements and Punishments
- Behavior modification
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers:
- Humanism: personal growth and human potential
- Unconditional positive regard
Albert Bandura and Albert Ellis:
- Cognitive: mental processing, how one thinks, aggression with Bobo The Clown doll.
- "what you see is what you do"
CAT scan, MRI, PET scan:
Biomedical: biological explanations of behavior
New Structuralism and Synapse:
standard of competency within a specific field of study.
society of group rules and regulations.
personal right and wrong.
a culture, society, or organized group right or wrong.
like using lab rats and comparing to quasi experiment.
observe and find answer.
pick and choose cases.
tests done in different areas.
tests in different time periods.
look at other variables affecting results.
Obedience to authority:
human nature can't be trusted under a form of leadership.
Zimbardo's Theory of Evil:
- Stereotyping: generalization of characteristics of a group
- Scapegoating: blame entire group
- Deindividualization: individual doesn't count, group matters
- Learned Helplessness: good people feel helpless and change
outside reasons why we behave the way we do.
inside reason why we behave the way we do.
Fundamental attribution error:
Overemphasize disposition, underemphasize situation.
Self-serving bias attribution:
- everything goes right: ME
- everything goes wrong: everyone else.
Just World hypothesis:
Cognitive dissonance attitude:
opposite belief, thoughts, and actions at the same time.
Primacy effect attitude:
first impressions count and people hold on to them.
negative attitude toward a group of people with shared characteristics.
making rules and regulations against a group of people based on shared characteristics.
thinking one's group is more superior and others aren't worth living.
when a group has a mind of its own.
group has a relatively neutral thought, but there are extremes in the group.
in a group situation, we tend to do riskier things.
the more people at a scene of an accident or trauma, the less help you will get (diffusion of responsibility).
helping people without expectation of reward.
- Consensus: majority
- Infant experiment: rate attractiveness of infant
- Proximity: how close would you stand to someone?
- Similarities attract: more in common= more attractive
- Halo effect: nicer attributes are given to more attractive people; being around attractive people increases attractiveness
- Forensic: pick who considers client more attractive.