Pharm E3, III Hist
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Pharm E3, III Hist
Pharm E3, III Hist & Sero
Short lived chemical mediators that play a significant role in response to local injury
Histamine is involved in (7):
H1 Histamine Receptors are responsible for:
Smooth Muscle Contraction
Relax small arterioles-> Decrease peripheral resistance and BP
H2 Histamine Receptors are responsible for:
Gastric Acid Secretion
H3 Histamine Receptors are responsible for:
Modulate neurotransmitter release in CNS
Mast Cell Pool (and basophils)
Non-Mast Cell Pool (GIT, CNS and skin)
The non-mast cell histamine pool=
What type of histamine stores are responsible for allergic reactions?
Mast cell pool
_____ histamine pool synthesizes histamine slowly, while the ____ pool synthesizes/releases it continuously
Mast Cell Pool
GIT, CNS and dermis
What decreases Histamine release?
Role histamine has in neurons (3):
Stimulate sensory nerves
Neurotransmitter in brain
Role of histamine in microcirulation (2):
Increase Capillary permeability
Pharmacological Effects of Histamine (5):
Smooth M Contraction
Pharmacologic effects of histamine:
Within the cardiovascular system, histamine induces (4):
Dilation of arterioles
Increase Capillary Permeability- EDEMA
Contraction of Large Vessels
Timeframe for wheal and flare rxns
Wheal(edema)= 90 sec
Flare(red)= 1-2 mins
Vasodilation is mediated by which receptors?
Which histamine receptors respond quickly to low doses?
Which histamine receptors respond slowly to high doses?
Ig__ = Mast Cell
What does Histamine induce in rabbits?
Pressor => Prominent Constriction of arteries
Histamine effects on Smooth Muscle (4):
Contraction of bronchial sm
relaxation of respiratory sm
Contraction of intestinal muscle
Contraction of Uterine sm
Histamine induces Exocrine Glands to secrete...(5)
Drugs that induce histamine release from mast cells (6):
Polypeptide Abx (polymixin)
In H1 Receptors, Histamine act through ___ to activate ____, which increases ___ & ____
Inositol Triphosphate & Intracellular Ca
In H2 Receptors, Histamine acts through ___ and increases ___, which activates ___
G-protein coupled Adenylyl Cyclase
Protein Kinase A
In which spp does histamine induce relaxation of bronchial SM?
In which spp does histamine induce contraction of bronchial SM?
Biotranformation of Histamine involves (2):
Therapeutic Uses of Histamine?
First Gen Antihistamines (7):
Second Gen Antihistamines (8):
Which Gen of Anti-Histamines lacks the CNS side Fx?
Which Gen of Anti-histamin crosses the BBB?
Which histamine receptors are used therapeutically?
Pharmacological Fx of Antihistamines (7):
Bronchiolar SM Relaxation
GI SM Relaxation
Increased Capillary Perm
Inhibition of itching/pain
Induce Arterial Hypotension (antagonizes histamine through H1)
Which H has a potent local anesthetic action?
General therapeutic Uses of Anti Histamines (7):
Therapeutic uses of antihistamines in bovines (4):
Antihistamine Side Fx (5):
Intestinal Disorders (anorexia, constipation, V/D)
Antimuscarinic Fx (dry mouth, urinary retention, pupillary dilation tachycardia)
Although relatively safe, Clinical Signs of Antihistamine OD =>
Tx for Antihistamine OD:
Ultrashort acting Barbituates
Which type of antihistamines inhibit gastric secretions?
H2 = Antacids
Cromolyn Sodium Inhibits release of histamine via ____
hyperpolarization of cells
(Does not inhibit H1/H2 receptors)
Therapeutic uses of Cromolyn Sodium:
Pulmonary/ Nasal allergic Rnxs