Pharm E3, III Hist

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HLW
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73619
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Pharm E3, III Hist
Updated:
2011-05-10 16:18:28
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Pharm
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Pharm E3, III Hist & Sero
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  1. Short lived chemical mediators that play a significant role in response to local injury
    Autocoids
  2. Histamine is involved in (7):
    • Inflammation
    • Anaphylaxis
    • Allergies
    • Drug Rnxs
    • Gastric Secretions
    • Neurons
    • Microcirculation
  3. H1 Histamine Receptors are responsible for:
    • Smooth Muscle Contraction
    • Relax small arterioles-> Decrease peripheral resistance and BP
  4. H2 Histamine Receptors are responsible for:
    Gastric Acid Secretion
  5. H3 Histamine Receptors are responsible for:
    Modulate neurotransmitter release in CNS
  6. Histamines Stores:
    • Mast Cell Pool (and basophils)
    • Non-Mast Cell Pool (GIT, CNS and skin)
  7. The non-mast cell histamine pool=
    • GIT
    • CNS
    • Skin
  8. What type of histamine stores are responsible for allergic reactions?
    Mast cell pool
  9. _____ histamine pool synthesizes histamine slowly, while the ____ pool synthesizes/releases it continuously
    • Mast Cell Pool
    • GIT, CNS and dermis
  10. What decreases Histamine release?
    cAMP/Epi
  11. Role histamine has in neurons (3):
    • Stimulate sensory nerves
    • Neurotransmitter in brain
    • Emetic response
  12. Role of histamine in microcirulation (2):
    • Relax arterioles
    • Increase Capillary permeability
  13. Pharmacological Effects of Histamine (5):
    • Smooth M Contraction
    • Hypotension
    • Gastric Secretion
    • Dermal Rxn
    • Pharmacologic effects of histamine:
  14. Within the cardiovascular system, histamine induces (4):
    • Dilation of arterioles
    • Decrease BP
    • Increase Capillary Permeability- EDEMA
    • Contraction of Large Vessels
  15. Timeframe for wheal and flare rxns
    • Wheal(edema)= 90 sec
    • Flare(red)= 1-2 mins
  16. Vasodilation is mediated by which receptors?
    • H1
    • H2
  17. Which histamine receptors respond quickly to low doses?
    H1
  18. Which histamine receptors respond slowly to high doses?
    H2
  19. Ig__ = Mast Cell
    IgE
  20. What does Histamine induce in rabbits?
    Pressor => Prominent Constriction of arteries
  21. Histamine effects on Smooth Muscle (4):
    • Contraction of bronchial sm
    • relaxation of respiratory sm
    • Contraction of intestinal muscle
    • Contraction of Uterine sm
  22. Histamine induces Exocrine Glands to secrete...(5)
    • Gastric (HCl)
    • Salivary
    • Pancreatic
    • Bronchial
    • Lacrimal
  23. Drugs that induce histamine release from mast cells (6):
    • Curare Alkaloids
    • Morphine
    • Meperidine
    • Atropine
    • Polypeptide Abx (polymixin)
    • Pen
  24. In H1 Receptors, Histamine act through ___ to activate ____, which increases ___ & ____
    • Gq Proteins
    • Phospholipase C
    • Inositol Triphosphate & Intracellular Ca
  25. In H2 Receptors, Histamine acts through ___ and increases ___, which activates ___
    • G-protein coupled Adenylyl Cyclase
    • cAMP
    • Protein Kinase A
  26. In which spp does histamine induce relaxation of bronchial SM?
    • Cat
    • Sheep
  27. In which spp does histamine induce contraction of bronchial SM?
    • Guinea Pig
    • Rabbit
    • Dog
    • Goat
    • Calf
    • Pig
    • Horse
    • Human
  28. Biotranformation of Histamine involves (2):
    • Methylation
    • Oxidation
  29. Therapeutic Uses of Histamine?
    • Dx Achlorhydria
    • Dx Pheocytochromia
  30. Histamine agonists(2):
    • Histamine Phosphate
    • Betazole
  31. First Gen Antihistamines (7):
    • Chloropheniramine
    • Diphenhydramine
    • Hydroxyzine
    • Dimenhydrinate
    • Meclizine
    • Promethazine
    • Cyproheptadine
  32. Second Gen Antihistamines (8):
    • Cetrizine
    • Deslorateadine
    • Fexofenadine
    • Ioratadine
    • Terfenadine
    • Astemizole
    • Diphenhydramine
    • Desloratidine
  33. Which Gen of Anti-Histamines lacks the CNS side Fx?
    2nd
  34. Which Gen of Anti-histamin crosses the BBB?
    1st
  35. Which histamine receptors are used therapeutically?
    • H1
    • H2
  36. Pharmacological Fx of Antihistamines (7):
    • Bronchiolar SM Relaxation
    • GI SM Relaxation
    • Increased Capillary Perm
    • Inhibition of itching/pain
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Induce Arterial Hypotension (antagonizes histamine through H1)
    • Antiemetic Fx
  37. Which H has a potent local anesthetic action?
    H1
  38. General therapeutic Uses of Anti Histamines (7):
    • Allergies/Anaphylaxis
    • Respiratory Disorders
    • Urticaria
    • Dermatitis
    • Laminitis
    • Myoglobinuria/azoturia
    • Ophthalmia
  39. Therapeutic uses of antihistamines in bovines (4):
    • Bloat
    • Gangrenous Mastitis
    • Septic Mastitis
    • Pregnancy toxemia
  40. Antihistamine Side Fx (5):
    • CNS Depression
    • Teratogenic Fx
    • Drug Tolerance
    • Intestinal Disorders (anorexia, constipation, V/D)
    • Antimuscarinic Fx (dry mouth, urinary retention, pupillary dilation tachycardia)
  41. Although relatively safe, Clinical Signs of Antihistamine OD =>
    • Hyperexcitability
    • Convulsions
  42. Tx for Antihistamine OD:
    Ultrashort acting Barbituates
  43. Which type of antihistamines inhibit gastric secretions?
    H2 = Antacids
  44. Cromolyn Sodium Inhibits release of histamine via ____
    • hyperpolarization of cells
    • (Does not inhibit H1/H2 receptors)
  45. Therapeutic uses of Cromolyn Sodium:
    • Pulmonary/ Nasal allergic Rnxs
    • Allergic Conjunctivitis

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