Ochem-Ch20-COOH-Nitriles

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Author:
lukemlj
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73653
Filename:
Ochem-Ch20-COOH-Nitriles
Updated:
2011-03-20 02:32:55
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Ochem Ch20 Carboxylic Acids Nitriles
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Ochem Ch20 Carboxylic Acids Nitriles
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  1. Preparation of Carboxylic Acid
  2. Preparation of Carboxylic Acid
  3. Preparation of Nitrile
  4. Preparation of Nitriles (can use POCl3 too)
  5. Nitrile to Carboxylic Acid
  6. Nitrile to Amine
  7. Nitrile to Ketone
    • 
  8. In a carboxylic acid, the carbonyl atom is ___ hybridized.
    sp2
  9. Like alcohols, carboxylic acids have ____ bonding and therefore have ___ boiling points.
    hydrogen, high
  10. The distinguishing characteristic of carboxylic acids is their ____. Carboxylic acids disassociate more readily than alcohols due to ____.
    Acidity. Resonance stabilization.
  11. Carboxylic acids with electron-withdrawing groups are ___ acidic because their carboxylate ions are stabilized.
    more
  12. Methods of synthesis of carboxylic acids
    • Oxidation of alkylbenzes
    • Oxidative cleavage of alkenes
    • Oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes
    • Hydrolysis of nitriles
    • Reaction of Grignard agents with CO2
  13. General reactions of carboxylic acids.
    • Loss of acidic proton
    • Nucleophilic acyl substitution at the carbonyl group
    • Substitution at the alpha carbon
    • Reduction
  14. Preparation of Nitriles
    • Sn2 reaction of alkyl halide with cyanide ion
    • Dehydration of an amide
  15. Reactions of Nitriles
    • Nucleophilic addition to polar CN bond
    • Hydrolysis to carboxylic acids
    • Reduction to primary amines
    • Reaction with organometallic reagents yielding ketones
  16. Preparation of COOH
    • Or O3

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