MA 201 Common POL

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Author:
Shutrbug20
ID:
73683
Filename:
MA 201 Common POL
Updated:
2011-03-18 15:06:15
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Body Fluid Tests
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Description:
Chapter 15 Unit 4-6
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  1. Hemoglobin (Hgb or Hb)
    Allosteric PROTEIN found in every erythrocyte (RBC) that carry O2 and CO2
  2. Normal Hemoglobin ranges
    Males: 14-18g/dl

    Females: 12-16g/dl
  3. Hemoglobin Low Count
    Enemia
  4. Hemoglobin Below 10g/dl
    • Shortness of breath
    • Tiredness
    • Pale skin
    • PANIC VALUE
  5. Hemoglobin Below 5g/dl
    No LIFE
  6. Hemoglobin TOO High
    • Polycythemia - bone marrow makes too many RBC
    • Weakness and fatigue results
  7. Hemoglobin Test
    • 1. Lancet finger, place large drop blood on reagent card
    • 2. Place card in machine, read / record results
  8. Hematocrit (Htc)
    Measures PERCENTAGE sample of blood (RBC)
  9. Normal Hematocrit Range
    • Males: 40-54%
    • Females: 37-47%
  10. Hematocrit Collection and Process
    • 1. Use lancet to draw blood out
    • 2. Micro tubes placed at blood sight to draw into capillary tube (no bubbles)
    • 3. Plug with clay card
    • 4. Draw 2 tubes, place in machine, spin
    • 5. Use machine scale to read/record results
  11. Hematocrit Tube Contents
    • 1. Bottom Layer RBC (heaviest)
    • 2. Buffy Coat (Leukocytes / Platelets)
    • 3. Plasma top layer
  12. Hemoglobin / Hematocrit Conversion
    • Hgb to Hc = Hgb x3 +- 3 estimate
    • Hc to Hgb = Hc /3 +- 3 estimate
  13. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (Sed-Rate) (ESR)
    Measures rate RBC settle in calibrated tube in given time (1-2hrs)
  14. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (Sed-Rate) Tests For
    • 1. Acute Inflammatory Infection
    • 2. Autoimmune Dissorders
    • 3. Arthritis / Polymialgia
    • 4. Acute / Chronic Infection
    • 5. Lupis
  15. Normal Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (Sed-Rate) Range
    • Males: 0-10mm/hr
    • Females: 0-20mm/hr
  16. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (Sed-Rate) Can't Detect
    • Sickle Cell
    • Polycythemia Vera
  17. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (Sed-Rate) Test Comprimise
    • Reading before time can yield false negative
    • Reading after time can yield false positive
  18. Blood Glucose Test
    Uses capillary blood to screen glucos levels for Diabetes
  19. Normal Fasting Gluclose Level
    • 70-120mg/dl
    • Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)
  20. Glucose Tolerance Testing (GTT)
    Used to diagnose diabetes, gestational diabetes, and hypoglycemia
  21. Glucose Tolerance Testing (GTT) Procedure
    • 1. Patient drinks a glucose concentrated drink
    • 2. Urine and blood collected at 30min, 30min, 1hr, 2hr incriments
    • If FBS is over 150mg/dl, DO NOT TEST!
  22. Symptoms to cause Glucose Tolerance Testing (GTT)
    • 1. extreme thirst, dehydration
    • 2. fatigue
    • 3. weight loss
    • 4. visual difficulties
    • 5. high glucose reading
  23. Glucose Tolerance Testing (GTT) Adverse Reactions
    • 1. Weakness
    • 2. Fainting (Syncopy)
    • 3.Excessive sweating
    • 4. Vomitting
    • 5. Pancrease failure to metabilize sugar
  24. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c)
    Glycohemoglobin
    • Modified form of hemoglobin elevated when glucose remains too high
    • Used to determine how much control patient has with glucose diet
  25. Cholesterol
    Too much can cause atherosclerosis / arteriosclerosis, hardening of the arteries
  26. Normal Cholesterol Range
    130-200mg/dl
  27. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • tested on newborns for congenital disease caused by inability to metabolize certain amino acids (Phenylalanine)
    • Prevents brain from developing (MR)
    • Required in all 50 states and Canada
  28. Urinalysis - 3 Major Catagories
    • 1. Physical, Chemical, Microscopic
    • 2. Must test within 1hr or refrigerate for later testing
  29. Urinalysis - Physical
    • Cloudy - cloudy, hazy, turbid
    • Volume - how much
    • Odor - acrid
    • Specific Gravity - waste particles 1.005-1.030 most fall 1.010-1.025
  30. Urinalysis - Chemical
    • Measures variety of chemicals on reagent strip
    • 1. Blood
    • 2. pH
    • 3. Ketones
    • 4. Glucose
    • 5. Leukocytes
    • 6. Bilirubin
  31. Urinalysis - Microscopic
    We only prep for specimen
  32. Urinalysis - Midstream (Sterile)
    • 1. Clean meatus (front to back)
    • 2. Urinate small amount into toilet, stop
    • 3. Catch in jar without touching inside, stop
    • 4. Continue urination into toilet
  33. Urinalysis - First Morning Pee
    • 1. Best to catch
    • 2. Been in bladder over night
  34. Urinalysis - 24hr
    • 1. Collect for 24hr from first urination
    • 2. Keep in same jar in refridgerator
    • 3. Annotate time of first pee on jar
  35. Substance Abuse Analysis
    Used to detect presence of illigal / illicit drugs or chemical substances
  36. Substance Abuse Analysis Requirements
    • 1. Patient must sign Chain-of-Custody form to concent for collection
    • 2. Tape lid closed after collection, patient signs
    • 3. Patient signs Lab request form to verify test complete and agrees
  37. Fecal (stool) Sample
    Used to provide diagnostic insight
  38. Fecal (stool) Sample Can Detect
    • 1. Occult (hidden) blood
    • 2. Ova / parasites (O&P)
    • 3. Bacterial / Viral infections
    • 4. Fat content (lipids)
  39. Fecal (stool) Sample
    Guaiac Test
    • Tests for blood in stool
    • Early detection for Colon Cancer Px 50+
    • Turns BLUE if positive
  40. Fecal (stool) Sample
    Patient Education before sample
    • 1. Increase fluids
    • 2. Avoid laxatives
    • 3. Avoid straining during collection
  41. Sputum
    Detect serious infections of lower respiratory tract
  42. Sputum Facts
    • 1. First morning is best
    • 2. Lower respiratory tract is sterile
  43. Sputem Diagnosis
    • 1. Cancer
    • 2. Bacterial / Viral Infection
    • 3. Fungal Infection
    • 4. Tuberculosis
    • 5. Meningitis
  44. Bacteria Collection (24-48hr Growth)
    • 1. Wound / Skin collection
    • 2. Blood cultures
  45. Bacteria Culture Sensitivity
    Culture bacteria while using different types antibiotics (which ones work)
  46. Bacteria Culture Media
    • 1. Primary Agar (most common) encourages growth of all microorganisms
    • 2. Selective Agar lets some grow but not others
    • 3. Enrichment Agar has nutrients added
    • 4. Place Ager plates (dishes) in incubator upside down (lid down)

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