PSYC ch.10 test 2

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PSYC ch.10 test 2
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2011-03-19 11:37:30
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test 2
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  1. a rapid appraisal of the personal significance of a situation, which prepares you for action
    emotion
  2. emphasise the broad function of emotions as energizing behavior toward some goals
    functionalist approach to emotion
  3. emotions serve to:
    • communicate child's feelings, needs, or wishes to others
    • regulate social distance
  4. Examples of the functions of emotions:
    Smiling:
    Frowning:
    Anger:
    • Smiling: communicates pleasure and helps maintain contact
    • Frowning: communicates sadness and gains attention
    • Anger: communicates fear and keeps strangers at a distance
  5. Basic Emotions include:
    • happiness
    • sadness
    • interest
    • surprise
    • anger
    • fear
    • disgust
  6. emotions inferred from facial expressions
    basic emotions
  7. Basic emotion:
    birth:
    4-6 weeks:
    3-4 mos:
    6-8 mos:
    2nd yr.
    • birth: interest, disgust, distress
    • 4-6 wks: social smiles
    • 3-4 mos: anger, surprise, sadness
    • 6-8 mos: true fear, shyness
    • 2nd yr: contempt, guilt
  8. Happiness is inferred form:
    smile
  9. smiles begin as ____ events, but are shaped by ______
    • random
    • caregivers
  10. Social smiles appear at:
    4-6 weeks
  11. by ____ months, they smile most when interacting with others
    3
  12. ___ months- laughter, typically response to active stimuli
    3-4
  13. ____ months-expressions of happiness are very selective
    6
  14. Anger in neonates, ________ is observed.
    distress
  15. Anger increases in ____ and ____ across the first year
    frequency and intensity
  16. Anger is often a response to ____
    frustration
  17. Expressions of sadness are evident, but:
    rare
  18. Sadness most common when:
    separated from caregiver
  19. Sadness also common when there is little or no sensitive ____
    caregiving
  20. Sadness is very common in infants of ____ mothers and infants who are ______ from mothers
    • depressed
    • separated (long-term)
  21. Fear is _____ in early months
    rare
  22. Fear increases in 2nd half of first year, especially :
    • stranger anxiety
    • separation anxiety
  23. those emotions that require the development of a self conscious
    higher order emotions
  24. examples of higher order emotions
    • shame
    • guilt
    • envy
    • pride
    • embarrassment
  25. Higher order emotions typically emerge during _____ and ____ years and become stronger after that.
    toddler and preschool (2 + years )
  26. In preschool years, they display some higher order emotions only in the presence of ______. (e.g. guilt/shame)
    adults
  27. At age _____, they feel guilt even when action was accidental.
    6
  28. in _______, they report appropriate emotions even if no adult is present; and they do not feel guilt over accidental wrong-doings.
    middle childhood.
  29. rules that dictate which emotions are okay in different situations
    emotional display rules
  30. emotional display rules are set by a person's ____
    culture
  31. emotional display rules are first evident at age ___
    2
  32. emotional display rules are not fully developed until ____
    middle childhood
  33. school-aged children can demonstrate ______- showing one emotion when feeling another (typically the opposite)
    masking
  34. Infants can recognize differences in emotions as early as ____ months,
    4
  35. At all ages, infants and children are much better at ____ different emotion than at _____ them.
    • producing
    • recognizing
  36. the ability to detect other's emotions and to take their perspective
    empathy
  37. ________ with caregivers forms foundations of empathy
    face to face communication
  38. "true" empathy- requires _______
    self-awareness
  39. just before at age 2 they will not only recognize emotion of others, but will attempt to relieve others' unhappiness, such relief efforts are _____ at first, but become more _____
    • behavioral (offering teddy bear)
    • verbal as language develops
  40. dramatic increase of empathy in ____, as understanding of various emotions increases and multiple cues can be used to determine another's emotions
    middle childhood
  41. by ______, empathy has developed beyond empathy for one's immediate emotional condition to their general life condition
    adolescence
  42. individual stable differences in how we approach and respond to other people and situations.
    temperament
  43. Thomas and Chess's nine demiensions of temperament appear to be present at _____
    birth
  44. typically assessed through interviews/surveys of parents as well as behavioral rating by those familiar with the child and by researchers
    temperament
  45. Pscyhophysiological research of temperament has focused on two types of children:
    • inhibited (shy) children
    • uninhibited (sociable) children
  46. Infants' temperaments are relatively unstable until about age ____
    3
  47. Influences on temperament:
    • genetics: similarities in twins
    • immediate environment: prenatal environment; parenting
    • cultural variations: asian babies exhibit less intense emotions
  48. Temperament as a predictor of behavior:
    Trait Outcome?
    1. interest (infants)
    2. persisitence (inf&m.ch.)
    3. distractibility (m.ch)
    4. high activity level (m.ch.)
    5. difficult temperament
    6. high activity level (PS)
    7.Shyness (PS)
    8. Irritability/impulsivity
    • 1,2.interest and persistance: better cognitive development
    • 3,4,5.distractibility, high activity level, and difficult temperament: school problems
    • 6. High activity level: sociable but also social conflict
    • 7. Shyness: anxiety, low self esteem/guilt
    • 8. Irritability/impulsivity: higher rates of aggression
  49. Sometimes the influence of temperament on behaviors is mediated by the responses of others, such as...
    parents, teachers, peers
  50. The fit between a child's personality and his environment is critical. Trying to force a personality change rarely works.
    "Goodness of Fit" Model and Child-rearing
  51. a close emotional bond between a baby and its caregiver
    attachment
  52. Developing a specific attachment:
    1. at birth:
    2. within first few days:
    3. at 3 mos:
    4. by 6 mos:
    5. when mobile:
    • 1. at birth: babies prefer human faces (mom's voice)
    • 2. w/in 1st few days: begin to distinguish familiar and unfamiliar people
    • 3. at 3 mos: smile more at caregiver than a stranger
    • 4. by 6 mos: may exhibit separation anxiety (caregiver)
    • 5. when mobile: approach caregiver in an unfamiliar situation (home base)
  53. According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, infants develop an attachment because the mother:
    meets their needs for oral gratification
  54. Infants develop an attachment because the mother meets their needs for oral gratification.
    Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud; Erikson)
  55. Learning Theory: The caregiver becomes valuable to the infant because he or she....
    is associated with positive experiences (not neg. ones) this includes meeting all of their needs
  56. here, the caregiver becomes valuable to the infant because he or she is associated with pos. experiences, which includes meeting all of their needs.
    Learning Theory
  57. Harlow Studies involved:
    baby monkeys
  58. Harlow studies: studies w/ surrogate monkey moms have revealed that infant monkeys prefer:
    a cloth surrogate without food to a metal wire surrogate with food (when nervous)
  59. The KEY to learning theory perspective is that attachment forms with those people who...
    consistently provide the baby with various types of external stimulation
  60. Ethological theory (Bowlby) focuses on the ______ interaction between child and caregiver, with primary emphasis on the biological preparation infants have to elicit ______ behaviors and on the issue of species _____.
    • reciprocal
    • caregiving
    • survival
  61. According to the Ethological theory, infants are pre-programmed with instincts (e.g. _____) that elicit caregiving, and mothers are programmed to....
    • (reflexes, crying)
    • respond to those needs
  62. This theory is unique in its involvement of both the child and caregiver--the development of attachment relies on 2-way interactions. Also unique in its emphasis on innate, pre-programmed responses.
    Ethological Theory (Bowlby)
  63. Bowlby identified 3 stages in the Attachment process:
    • Preattachment: birth to 6 wks
    • Attachment-in-the-making: 6 wks to 6-8 mos.
    • Clear-cut attachment: 6-8 mos +
  64. Critical precursors to the development of an attachment are:
    • sense of control over their environment
    • appropriate stimulation
  65. allows researchers to observe a child's interactions with Mom and a stranger and categorize children as one of 3 types of attachment patterns
    the strange situation paradigm (Ainsworth)
  66. The strange situation paradigm
    1. secure attachment:
    • 65%
    • baby distressed upon separation
    • comforted upon reunion
  67. The strange situation paradigm
    2. avoidant attachment
    • 20%
    • baby not distressed at separation
    • ignored or avoided mom at reunion
  68. The strange situation paradigm
    3. ambivalent attachment
    • 10% +
    • may be distressed at separation
    • angry or detached at reunion (seemed uncertain)
  69. The strange situation paradigm
    4. disorganized attachment
    • - 5%
    • babies exhibited disorientation or bizarre behaviors, dazed, and confused (rocking, head-banging)
  70. The four patterns of the the strange situation paradigm describe a ____, not an individual child or parent.
    relationship
  71. The attachment patterns in the strange situation paradigm can be predicted by:
    early interactions between caregivers and babies
  72. _____can influence the formation of attachment patterns.
    others in the environment (family members)
  73. The _____ relationship is a good predictor of attachment patterns.
    marital (if married)
  74. Generally, when the family unit and environment remain constant, attachment classifications....
    also remain the same
  75. Fathers as attachment figures.
    dads can develop secure attachments with babies if they are involved regularly with the babies.
  76. Several factors may contribute to fathers' level of involvement:
    • dad's interst and availability
    • mom's encouragement
    • mom's health
    • cultural standards
  77. Differences in moms and dads:
    • dads play more and are more physical
    • moms spend more time in basic care and are more verbal
  78. The differences between moms and dads occur in multiple cultures and are still observed with stay-at-home dads. As a result,babies prefer to ..
    play with dad and prefer to have mom's comfort in times of stress
  79. Peers can also serve as attachment figures, although the opportunity to develop such attachments are not likely in infancy. Peer attachments are typically _____ than child-adult attachments, probably because of the quality of their interactions.
    weaker
  80. A mom that works does not necessarily experience insecure mother/infant attachments. When attachment problems DO appear with working moms, it appears to result from...
    • working long hours
    • fatigue
    • lack of sensitive
    • caregiving when mom comes home
  81. Effects of children in daycare:
    • better social skills
    • less fearful
    • more aggresive
    • less compliant
  82. Not all daycare are equal. The most important characteristics are:
    • positive interactions (with you and kids)
    • small teacher-to-child ratio
    • caregiver training
    • safety
    • space
  83. early infant-parent attachment has implications for several aspects of later development. Secure attachment in infancy are linked to :
    • better social skills
    • more empathy
    • less aggression
    • higher self-esteem
    • more pos. moods
    • better relationships even as adults
    • more friends
    • more persistant on taks
    • enjoy problem solving
    • enjoy learning

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