Took centuries-old chant for mass (Viderunt Omnes), added 3 new voices above it
Jaunty triple-meter rhythm
The structurally fundamental line in medieval polyphony, moving very slowly, sustaining (holding) one note.
Provided harmonic foundation
Guillame de Machaut (1300-1377)
Genius of Medieval music. Pre-eminent poet-compser of 14th-century.
Associated with Ars Nova- Middle Ages obsessed w/ rhythm, experimented w/ radical rhythmic composition
Developed motet and was the first to set the Ordinary of the Mass in triple meter (first to use triple meter)
Eliminated drone, put tenor in the middle, two on top, creating soprano/alto/tenor/bass (Perotinus had put all three above tenor)
Unlike P., spread out voices over 2.5 octaves, becoming first to use almost full range of chorus
sacred Latin music for multiple voice parts
Renaissance ideal emphasizing human potential and belief that people could be morally educated
Belief that people are more than mere conduit for heaven, but have capacity to create & shape world.
Josquin Desprez (1455-1521)
Franco-Flemish Renaissance composer
Excelled in motets
His Ave Maria (Hail Mary) uses standard four voice parts (S/A/T/B). As motet unfolds, voices enter in succession with same music motive (=imitation). Each voice equally important, yielding symmetry/balance.
Imitation: procedure whereby one more voices duplicate in turn the notes of a melody
Reform movement promoting more conservative/austere approach to art, in response to Protestant Reformation
Started w/ Council of Trent
Against imitative polyphony: arguing it obscures meaning
Palestrina accomodated its needs
Master of Sistine Chapel during Council of Trent
"Saviour of church music"
Missa Papae Marcelli: set text of Mass w/ exceptional clarity, mostly by homophony: very short, small points of imitation, no fluidity
Highly ornamental melody w/ solid chordal foundation
Decoration seems to overrun fundamental harmonic structure. Asymmetry; "misshapen pearl"
Highly dramatic: singleness of emotion
Doctrine of Affections: diff. Musical moods influence emotions
Vocal virtuoso solo singing (monody) supported by basso continuo: bass-driven chordal support
Italian secular music for (usually) 3-6 voices, text tends to be vernacular love poetry
2) Attempt to express musicallythe meaning of a text: so common in madrigals, called "madrigalisms"