Health Assessment GI

Card Set Information

Health Assessment GI
2011-03-20 01:48:46
HA Exam

Heart (6), Peripheral Vascular (8), Head/Neck/Lymph (5), Eyes (4), Ears (2), Nose/Mouth/Sinus (3), and Neuro 11
Show Answers:

  1. Health History
    * Abdominal Pain
    • - Location
    • - Quality
    • - Chronology
    • - Quantity
    • - Setting
    • - Associated symptoms
    • - Aggravating/Alleviating factors
    • - Patient perception
  2. Associated Symptoms
    • - Weight Loss or Gain
    • - Change in Appetite (subjective)
    • - Nausea, Vomiting (subjective)
    • - Diarrhea
    • - Constipation (subjective)
    • - Abdominal distention
    • - Flatus (subjective)
    • - Indigestion < Dyspepsia> (subjective)
    • - Jaundice
  3. Past History
    • - Food allergies
    • a. Lactose Intolerant

    • - Surgeries
    • a. Appendectomy
    • b. Colon
    • c. Gastrectomy
    • d. Hysterectomy
    • e. Bladder Repair

    - Hospitalizations/Adult Illness

    - Medications: Over the counter, Rx, Herbal
  4. Personal Habits
    • - Dietary Habits
    • - Alcohol Intake
    • - Smoking Habits
  5. Other Symptoms (related symptoms) associated with Abdominal Pain
    Genitourinary (urinary tract infections, bladder tumors)

    Reproductive (menstrual discomfort -> Dysmenorrhea mittelschmerz) (ovarian cysts, PID, STD)

  6. Family History
    - Gallbladder disease

    - Kidney disease

    -Malabsorption syndrome (cystic fibrosis, celiac disorder)

    - Polypesis ,Colon cancer

    • PUD (peptic ulcer disease)
    • Hiatal nernia
    • Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease (GERD)
    • Ulcerative Colitis
    • Diverticulitis
  7. Physical Exam Order for Abdomen
    • - Inspection
    • -Auscultation
    • - Percussion
    • - Palpatation
  8. Physical Exam: Preparation
    Patient positioning

    Proper exposure (all quandrants must be visible)!
  9. Four quadrants of Abdomen & what organs are located there

    • RUQ:
    • Liver
    • Gall bladder with biliary tree
    • Duodenum
    • Head of pancreas
    • Hepatic flexure of colon

    • LUQ:
    • StomachSpleenLeft lobe of liverBody of pancreasLeft kidney and adrenal glandSplenic flexure of colonParts of transverse and descending colon

    • RLQ:
    • CecumAppendixAscending ColonRight ovary and Fallopian tubeRight ureter

    • LLQ:
    • f descending colon, sigmoid colon, left ovary and Fallopian tube or left ureter.
  10. Epigastric
  11. Umbilical region
    part of the stomach, the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a section of the transverse colon and the lower aspects of the left and right kidney.

  12. Hypogastric
    Rectum, Urinary Bladder,
  13. Inspection
    • - Color (Normal: smooth even color)
    • -> look for skin abnormalities

    - Umbilicus (inverted or everted)

    • - Surface characteristics
    • -> Respirations, Pulsations for the aorta, Peristalsis

    - Contour

    - Demeanor ( comfortable, relaxed position)
  14. Auscultation
    • ->Performed for detection of altered bowel
    • sounds, rubs, or vascular bruits

    • Bowel Sounds
    • - Quiet Setting
    • - Use DIAPHRAGM of stethoscope
    • - Listen in ALL quadrants (4)
    • - Gurgling/clicking every 5-15 seconds is considered Normoactive
    • bell diaphram

    • Vascular Sounds (bruits)
    • -use BELL of stethoscope
    • - Aorta, Renal, and Iliac arteries
  15. Normoactive Bowel Sound
    Sounds every 5-15 seconds
  16. Hypoactive Bowel Sounds
    Sounds every 20-60 seconds
  17. Hyperactive Bowel Sounds
    Sounds every 2-3 seconds
  18. Absent Bowel Sounds
    NO sounds heard for 5 minutes
  19. Percussion
    • ->Used to assess the density of abdominal
    • contents, locate organs, and screen for masses and abnormal fluid

    -> Person should be in a supine position

    ->Tones in All 4 quadrants (Percuss 2-3 sites per quadrant of the abdomen)

    • - Tympany predominant (due to air rising to the
    • surface in the intestines

    • - Dullness percussed:
    • * over organs (liver)
    • * Full bladder
    • * Over feces-filled colon
    • - Costovertebral Angle (assess for tenderness)

    • Use the heel of your closed fist to strike the patient firmly over the costovertebral angles.

    • (Place hand over the 12th rib at the costovertebral
    • angle on the back)
  20. Palpation
    • -> Common practice to start percussing in a quadrant where there is no pain/discomfort and to percuss the painful quadrant(s) last
    • -> Palpate for crepitus of the abdominal wall, abdominal tenderness,or abdominal masses
    • -> Liver & kidney can be palpable but no other masses normal.

    • Light- palmar surface of fingers (Using
    • a circular motion, move clockwise to assess the entire abdomen)

    • * Tenderness, Muscle tone, and Distention or Not
    • ->At this point you are mostly looking for areas of tenderness. The most sensitive indicator of tenderness is the patient's facial expression. Voluntary or involuntary guarding may also be present.

    • Deep
    • -> Place the flat of the hand on the abdominal
    • wall and apply firm, steady pressure.
    • -> Begin deep palpation in the quadrant directly
    • opposite any area of pain and carefully examine each quadrant.
    • * Tenderness, Masses, Pulsations, and Liver Edge

    • * Umbilicus: hernias, Inverted/Everted
    • -> occurs when part of the intestine protrudes through an opening in the abdominal muscles.

    * Inguinal lymph nodes

    * Femoral pulse

    • Muscle wall- intact, no bulging

    Masses- none present

    Tenderness- none

    No enlarged organs
  21. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
    • -> Alimentary Tract
    • -> Chronic symptoms ormucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus.[1]

    -> A typical symptom is heartburn.

    ->Signs/Symptoms: Heartburn,Regurgitation,Trouble swallowing (dysphagia)

    -> Regurgitation after eating/ Problems eating.
  22. Hiatal Hernia
    -> Alimentary Tract

    -> occurs when part of your stomach pushes upward thru diaphragm. Your diaphragm normally has a sm. opening (hiatus) that allows your food tube (esophagus) to pass thru on its way to connect to your stomach.

    -> Symptoms:

    Small hiatal hernias Most small hiatal hernias cause no signs or symptoms.

    Large hiatal hernias Larger hiatal hernias can cause signs and symptoms such as : Heartburn,Belching,Chest pain,Nausea
  23. Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
    • -> Alimentary Tract
    • A peptic ulcer is a sore or hole in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).

    - Hylobacter pylori
  24. Crohn's Disease
    • -> Alimentary tract
    • *Inflammatory Bowel disease
    • * It causes inflammation of lining of your digestive tract which can lead to abdominal pain, sever diarrhea, and even malnutrition.
  25. Ulcerative Colitis (chronic inflammation of bowel)
    -> Alimentary tract

    -> an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, is characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea
  26. Diverticulitis
    -> Alimentary tract

    -> when one or more diverticula in your digestive tract become inflamed or infected. Diverticula are small, bulging pouches that can form anywhere in your digestive system, including your esophagus, stomach and small intestine. However, they're most commonly found in the large intestine.

    • ->The most common sign on examination is tenderness in the lower left side of the abdomen.
    • ->Usually, the pain is severe and comes on suddenly, but it can also be mild and become worse over several days. The intensity of the pain can fluctuate.
    • -> A person may experience cramping, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, or a change in bowel habits.
  27. Hepatobiliary System Problems
    -> Viral hepatitis (inflammation of liver)

    -> Cirrhosis (degenerative disease of liver)

    -> Cholecystitis with Cholelithiasis (gallbladder)
  28. Pancreas Common Problems
    Acute or Chronic Inflammation of the pancreas
  29. Urinary System Problems
    -> Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

    -> Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)
  30. Organs in Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)



    Head of pancreas

    Right kidney and adrenal

    Part of ascending and transverse colon
  31. Organs in Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)


    Left lobe of liver

    Body of pancreas

    Left kidney and adrenal

    Part of transverse and descending colon
  32. Organs in Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)


    Right ovary and tube

    Right ureter

    Right spermatic cord
  33. Organs in Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
    Part of descending colon

    Sigmoid colon

    Left ovary and tube

    Left ureter

    Left spermatic cord
  34. Subjective information in Abdomen
    • Changes in appetite
    • -> Changes in weight- loss/gain

    Difficulty swallowing

    Foods that are not tolerated

    Abdominal pain


    • Bowel movements
    • -> Frequency, color, diarrhea, constipation

    Past history of GI disease

    • Medications
    • -> Alcohol, cigarette use

    24 hour dietary recall
  35. Inspection of the abdomen
    • Shape of abdomen
    • - flat
    • - Rounded
    • - scaphoid (sunken abdomen, seen as starvation)
    • - protuberant
  36. Abdominal Rub Causes
    • Irritation of serosal surfaces may produce a sound (rub) as an organ moves against the serosal
    • surface.
  37. Altherosclerosis Causes what in abdomen??
    Atherosclerosis may alter arterial blood flowso that a bruit is produced

    • -> Bruits are "swishing" sounds heard over major arteries during systole. The area over the aorta, both renal arteries. and the iliac arteries should be
    • examined carefully for bruits.
  38. Auscultation (conditions)
    • Place the patient in a comfortable supine
    • position.

    • The stethoscope is used to listen over
    • several areas of the abdomen for several minutes for the presence of bowel
    • sounds.

    • Start in the RLQ- bowel sounds are normally
    • always present here

    • The diaphragm of the stethoscope should be
    • applied to the abdominal wall with firm but gentle pressure.

    • When bowel sounds are not present, one should
    • listen for a full 5 minutes before determining that bowel sounds are, in fact,
    • absent.
    • - Hypoactive
    • - Normoactive
    • - Hyperactive