Organics test 1

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Organics test 1
2011-03-18 23:46:09
neurological disorders aphasia

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  1. Ischemic CVA
    blood flow is occluded at a specific point
  2. thrombosis
    artery gets damed up over time, often near an anastomosis
  3. anastomosis
    divide in an artery
  4. embolism
    clot that travels to a point and lodges
  5. hemorrhage
    too much blood in an area of the brain--arterial or veinous wall that burst and floods the surrounding area with blood.
  6. hematoma
    accumulation of blood
  7. aneurysm
    artery or vein that has "ballooned out"
  8. hypertension
    high blood pressure. over time, can thin out the artery or vein wall and cause hemorrhage
  9. *aphasia
    Acquired impairment of language processes that often underlie receptive and expressive modalities and is always characterized by anomia. aphasia is caused by damage to areas of the brain primarily responsible for language function
  10. anomia
    word finding/retrieval deficit
  11. shallow centrality
    receptive or expressive modalities (how we communicate)
  12. deep centrality
    all modalities (how we communicate)
  13. omission anomia
    patients didn't say something they could say
  14. commission anomia
    patient say something that is a deficit
  15. fluent speech
    average of 9 or more words in a phrasing
  16. paraphasia
    word substitutions, produced unintentionally and by fluent or non fluent speakers
  17. phonemic paraphasia
    (literal) substitution, addition, or rearrangement of speech sounds so that the error sounds similar to the target (pike for pipe)
  18. verbal paraphasia
    pathological breakdown in semantic boundaries between words that are related
  19. semantic verbal paraphasia
    • error bears a semantic relationship to the target
    • (wife for husband)
  20. unrelated verbal paraphasia
    • error bears no semantic relationship to the target
    • (chair for scissors)
  21. neologistic paraphasia
    • fluently spoken paraphasia, bears no relationship the the patient's native language, usually spoken without recognition of the error
    • (planker for comb)

    no relationship to the word, they dont know they are saying the wrong word
  22. empty speech
    fluent, lengthy utterances that are primarily non-communicative
  23. press for speech
    a need to talk and go on, and on, and on....
  24. agrammatisms
    word retrieval deficits. words are omitted from the target intended utterance

  25. content words
    carry most of the meaning in a sentence
  26. functors
    words that dont carry much meaning, but help the sentence to make sense
  27. pseudoagrammatism
    usually one word phrase that "sum up" the response.

    ex: stroke
  28. telegraphic speech
    • the basic parts of a sentence may be uttered in a simple utterance
    • (S V O)
    • ex: go Target buy candy
  29. verbal stereotypic speech
    usually involuntary, repeated utterances that may make up the patient's entire vocab

    ex: "I know"...
  30. cognition
    the coordinated operation of active mental processes within a multicomponent memory system
  31. short term memory
    immediate memory, about 7 pieces of data in capacity or only a few seconds in term of time
  32. recent memory
    • (long term memory) only lasts for a short period of time (hours to days) and is gone
    • ex: what ate for lunch 2 days ago
  33. remote memory
    • things that you dont forget
    • ex: how to read, recognize letters, ride a bike, etc
  34. consolidation
    moving info from short term to long term memory
  35. working memory
    center of cognition. fast processor of info, but has a limited capacity
  36. resource allocation
    we all have certain amount of cognition resources available to us to use, when have brain injury, some of the resources are sucked away
  37. attention
    a concentration of mental activity
  38. divided attention
    can separate your attention among things and be successful.
  39. directed attention
    focus attention on one thing, one piece of task. ability to pick out certain things based on need or stimulus--know what is important and insignificant
  40. shifting attention
    ability to move attention from one task to another fluidly
  41. sustained attention/ vigilance
    person can maintain their attention to task long enough to facilitate adequate processing
  42. controlled processing
    • often difficult or complex or unfamiliar tasks that require focused attention
    • ex: learning how to drive a car
  43. automatic processing
    simple, familiar, or over-learned tasks. theses require a low level of awareness and attention and can divide the attention among multiple tasks
  44. resource allocation
    considering how much cognitive resources is needed to complete a task
  45. executive functions
    set of cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviors. necessary for goal-directed behavior
  46. visual field cut
    perception example. 2 fields of vision with L and R eyes.
  47. anosognosia
    patient does not have a good awareness of their deficits--not ignoring them.
  48. topological disorientation
    • difficulty disorienting himself to the environment, not memory disorder or general confusion.
    • ex: getting around areas
  49. prosopagnosia
    recognition of faces
  50. reduplicative amnesia
    • attributing yourself to somewhre that you are not, without being disoriented and memory deficit.
    • ex: patent know he is in the hospital, and knows where he lives-far away, then points out the window across the street to "his house"
  51. homonymous hemianopsia
    visual field cut on one side, typically the left
  52. anosognosia
    not aware of their deficits
  53. object recognition
    visual perceptual problem. patient does not recognize the object for what it is.
  54. informativeness
    • patient may not inform as much as they should or too much
    • shows problems in conversations and informing people of what info they need to know
  55. integration/organization
    patients see the detail, but cannot put that detail together in a whole picture
  56. producing alternatives
    understanding alternatives related to reasoning and judgment.
  57. impaired inferencing
    cannot 'read between the lines' and make logical assumptions based on what they see
  58. dementia
    disturbances in the thought process of the individual
  59. cortical dementia
    lesions in the cortex affect and makes changes
  60. subcortical dementia
    lesion is below the level of the cortex
  61. mixed dementia
    can have dementia from multiple strokes (can happen once or over time)
  62. mutism
    not talking, caused by patient decided not to
  63. open head injury
    • the skull is perforated
    • typically: less diffuse damage that is confined to a single region of the brain
  64. closed head injury
    skull remains intact. likely present with both primary damage to specific region of the brain and diffuse damage throughout the brain.
  65. coup
    primary damage in the brain
  66. contra-coup
    injury opposite of the primary site, caused by momentum of the injury through the cranium
  67. coma
    condition where the patient displays minimal, if any, purposeful response to external stimuli